تعیین جهت بهینه در ساختمان‌های اداری اقلیم سرد، مورد مطالعاتی: شهر کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار معماری، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، واحد کرمانشاه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 دانشیار معماری، دانشکده فنی ‌و مهندسی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران.

3 دانشیار معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

سرانه مصرف انرژی در ایران بالاتر از بسیاری کشورهاست. در این میان سیاست‌های دولت در جهت واقعی‌سازی قیمت انرژی، توجه به راه‌کارهای انرژی کارا در بخش ساختمان را افزایش داده است. یکی از راه‌کارهای مؤثر در کاهش مصرف انرژی، طراحی اقلیمی ابنیه و از جمله تعیین جهت بهینه ساختمان است. به این ترتیب اولین و مهم‌ترین وظیفه معمار، قرار دادن ساختمان در جهتی است که بیشترین دریافت نور خورشید را در فصل زمستان و کمترین دریافت را در فصل تابستان داشته باشد. بهره‌گیری از نور خورشید علاوه بر تأثیری که بر کاهش نیاز گرمایشی ساختمان دارد، با بهینه‌سازی کیفیت محیط داخل می‌تواند باعث سلامت و بهره‌وری بیشتر ساکنان و در نتیجه ایجاد منافع اقتصادی فراوان برای کشور شود. اولگی1 با توجه به شدت تابش آفتاب بر سطوح قائم در جهات مختلف جغرافیایی و نیز ساعت‌ها و فصول مختلف، مناسب‌ترین جهات را برای چهار منطقه اقلیمی ایالات متحده آمریکا به‌دست آورد که برای مناطق دیگر با شرایط و عرض‌های جغرافیایی یکسان از جمله ایران نیز به‌کار می‌رود. هدف از مطالعه حاضر بررسی صحت و سقم جهت‌گیری بهینه تعریف شده برای ساختمان‌ها در اقلیم سرد ایران (شهر کرمانشاه) می‌باشد. از آنجا که دانش شبیه‌سازی، مطالعه رفتار پیچیده ساختمان را با توجه به اقلیم ممکن ساخته و طراحان را در اتخاذ روش‌های مناسب اقلیمی، یاری می‌رسانند؛ لذا در این تحقیق برای تعیین جهت بهینه ساختمان از نرم‌افزار شبیه‌ساز دیزاین بیلدر استفاده شده است. به این منظور یک تیپ ساختمان اداری پرتکرار در این شهر، در نرم‌افزار مورد نظر با ویژگی‌های نزدیک به واقعیت شبیه‌سازی و سپس انرژی اولیه مورد نیاز ساختمان در جهات مختلف محاسبه شد. نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق نشان داد که با در نظر گرفتن شاخص میزان مصرف انرژی، کشیدگی غربی- شرقی، بهترین جهت‌گیری در ساختمان‌های اداری شهر کرمانشاه می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of the Optimal Orientation in the Cold Climate Administrative Buildings; Case Study: Kermanshah

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Ansarimanesh 1
  • Nazanin Nasrollahi 2
  • Mohammad Javad Mahdavinejad 3
1 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Kermanshah Branch Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture,Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The per capita energy consumption in Iran is higher than that of many of the countries. In between, the government’s policies have become aligned with getting the energy cost closer to the reality and this has increasingly drawn the attentions to the efficient energy solutions in the building sector. One of the effective solutions in reducing the energy consumption is the climate-based designing of the buildings in general and the determination of the optimal orientation of the building in specific. This way, the first and the most important duty of an architect is aligning the building to a direction that receives the highest and the lowest amounts of sunlight during winter and summer, respectively. Besides influencing the reduction in the thermal need of the building, the enjoyment of the sunlight optimizes the quality of the interior environment thereby causing more healthiness and productivity of the residents and the resultant creation of abundant economic interests for the country. Considering the intensity of the sun’s irradiation on the orthogonal surfaces in various geographical directions as well as the various hours and seasons, Olgyay obtained the most appropriate directions for four climatic regions in the US and it can be also applied for the other regions with the identical conditions and latitudes, including Iran. The present study aimed at the investigation of the authenticity and accuracy of the optimal orientation defined for the buildings in the cold climate of Iran (Kermanshah). Since the simulation knowledge enables the study of the complex behavior of the building according to climate and assists the designers in adopting proper climate-based method, Design Builder was the software chosen in the present study for the determination of the building’s optimal orientation. To do so, a type of administrative building repeatedly constructed in this city was simulated in the aforesaid software with features close to reality and the initial energy required by the building was subsequently computed in various directions. The results obtained from the present study indicated that western-eastern stretch was the best orientation for the administrative buildings in Kermanshah considering the energy consumption rate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Optimal Orientation
  • energy consumption
  • Cold Climate
  • Administrative Buildings
  • Kermanshah

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