مطالعه تطبیقی کارکردهای تمثیل با رویکرد بیان معنا در معماری ایرانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه پژوهش هنر، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پدیده‌های موجود در عالم مراتب مختلفی از مادی تا معنایی دارند که به صورت ظاهر و باطن یا «صورت» و «معنا» شناخته شده و بر اساس جهان‌بینی افراد ادراک می‌شوند. در معماری نیز آثار کالبدی، محل تجلی معانی در سطوح مختلف می‌باشند. بنابراین آنچه که اهمیت ویژه‌ای دارد، کسب آگاهی نسبت به چگونگی بیان معانی برای طراحان می‌باشد. شیوه‌های مختلفی برای انتقال معنا در حوزه‌های ادبی و هنری وجود دارد که تمثیل به‌عنوان یکی از این روش‌ها مطرح است. هدف این مقاله تبیین نقش تمثیل و کاربست آن در آثار معماری می‌باشد. به این منظور به ویژگی‌های مفهومی و ساختاری تمثیل در سایر حوزه‌ها پرداخته شده‌است تا با مطالعه‌ای تطبیقی، خلأ نظری و معرفتی کاربرد آن در زمینه معماری پر شود و راه برای خلق آثار معماری فاخر و درک معانی مستتر در کالبد‌های موجود هموارتر شود. این مقاله که به روش توصیفی، تحلیلی و با رویکرد کیفی انجام یافته؛ به بررسی تطبیقی نحوه کاربرد تمثیل در ادبیات، هنر و معماری پرداخته است تا به پرسش اصلی درباره چگونگی نقش و کاربرد تمثیل در بیان معنا پاسخ دهد. نتایج تحلیل‌ها نشان داد که تمثیل، از طریق محسوس نمودن مفاهیم ذهنی، نقش مهمی در ادراک‌پذیر نمودن معنا در سطوح مختلف دارد. تمثیل در آثار معماری نیز با استفاده از تصاویر عینی، تصویری ذهنی از مفاهیم، در اندیشه مخاطب ایجاد می‌کند که اثری ماندگار در ذهن خواهد داشت. همچنین یافته‌ها حاکی از آن است که تمثیل با نقشی متمایز از نمادها و نشانه‌ها، که کارکرد انتزاعی‌تری دارند، با عینیت‌بخشی و تصویرسازی مفاهیم عمیق و با داشتن قابلیت مهم «استدلال‌پذیری» سبب درک معانی با به‌کارگیری قوه عقل می‌شود. مهم‌ترین تمثیل‌های به کار رفته در معماری ایرانی، اصل توحید را به مثابه بالاترین مرتبه حقیقت و معنا بیان می‌کنند

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comparative Study of Function of Allegory in Expression of Meaning (With an emphasis on Iranian Architecture)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somayeh Sadrykia 1
  • Mohammadreza Bemanian 2
  • Hasanali Pourmand 3
1 Ph.D. of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor of Art Research, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Every phenomenon in the world has various levels of meaning, from material to spiritual meaning, which are known as appearance and inwardness or “form” and “semantic features” and are perceived according to individuals’ worldview. In architecture, buildings indicate the meanings at different levels. So what is of particular importance for designer is to gain an understanding of various ways to express meanings. Allegory is one of the various ways to express meanings in the disciplines of literature and art. The present study aims to explain the role of allegory and its application in architecture. To this end, the conceptual and structural properties of allegory in other fields are investigated to fill the theoretical and epistemological gap of its application in architecture using a comparative study. This is also helpful in paving the way to create magnificent buildings as well as in understanding the meanings latent in buildings more deeply. The present study is descriptive, analytical and qualitative research in which the applications of allegory in literature, art, and architecture are compared to answer the key question of what the role of allegory in the expression of meaning. The results of the analyses showed that the allegory plays a key role in the perception of meanings at different levels by making mental concepts more tangible. In architecture, using objective images, allegory creates the intellectual and mental images of the concepts in the audience’s mind and such images have a long lasting effect on the mind. The findings also suggest that the allegory, with a role different from symbols and signs, which have a more abstract function, objectifies and visualizes deep meanings and thereby enabling individuals to understand the meanings using their reasoning. The most important allegories used in Iranian architecture express the monotheism as the highest level of truth and meaning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Meaning
  • allegory
  • Architecture
 

The Holy Qur’an

Aboulghasemi, L. (2005). Iranian Islamic Art and Architecture. (A. OmraniPour). Tehran: Ministry of Housing and Urban Development.

AghaHosseini, H., & Seyyedan, E. (2013). An Investigation of the Place of Metaphor and Allegory in Saadi’s Thoughts of Education. Educational Literature Research, 5(19), 1-28. http://ensani.ir/fa/article/325292

Aghdaei, T. (2004). The Allegories Structure and Its Role in Transforming Theosophical Lessons. Islamic Theosophy Quarterly, 1(2), 17-42. https://www.magiran.com/paper/880575

Ahmadi, B. (1993). Structure and Interpretation of the Text. Tehran: Markaz Publication.

Ahmadi, B., Mohajer. M., & Nabavi, M. (1998). Modern Hermeneutics. Tehran: Markaz Publication.

Akbari, F., & Pournāmdāreiyan. T. (2011). Mystery and Its Difference with Symbol and Sign. Journal of Persian Language and Literature Teaching Growth, 3, 54-60. http://ensani.ir/fa/article/243429

Antoniades, A.C. (2002). Poetics of Architecture: Theory of Design. Vol. I: Strategies toward Subtle Architectural Creativity. (A.R. Ai, Trans.). Tehran: Soroush Publications.

Aristotle. (1992). Rhetoric. (P. Maleki, Trans.). Tehran: Eghbal.

Ardalan, N. (1995). Iranian Architecture in the Conversation of Four Generations of Expert Architects. Abadi, 5(19), 4-45. https://www.noandishaan.com/30529

Bagheri, S., & Einifar, A.R. (2017). A Classification of Semiotics in Architecture: The Delimitation and Clarification of Manifestation and the Inclusion Domain of Semiotics in Architecture. ARMANSHAHR Architecture and Urban Development, 9 (17), 1-10. http://www.armanshahrjournal.com/article_44599.html

Bemanian, M., & Azimi, S. (2010). Reflection of Meanings Originated from Islamic Ideology in Architectural Design. Journal of Studies on Iranian – Islamic City, 1(2), 39-48. http://iic.icas.ir/Journal/Article_Details?ID=11

Bozorgmehri, Z. (2002). Building Materials: (Azhand, Andood, and Amood). Tehran: cultural heritage. 

Carmona, M., & Tiesdell, S. (2007). Urban Design Reader: The Dimension of Urban Design. London: Architecture Press.

Corbin, H. (2009). En Islam Iranien: Aspects Spirituels ET Philosophiques. (R. Koohkan, Trans.). Tehran: Iran Research Institute of Philosophy.

Critchlow, K. (2004). The Use of Geometry in Islamic Lands. (S. Foster, Eds.). AD (Architectural Design), 74 (6), London: Wiley.

Dehkhoda, A. (1998). Dehkhoda Dictionary. 14, Tehran: University of Tehran Press.

Emami, S. (2002). Sign and Allegory: Differences and Similarities. KETAB–E-MAH–E- HONAR, 47, 48, 61-68. http://ensani.ir/fa/article/81359

Falamaki, M. (2002). Architectural Roots and Theoretical Trends. Tehran: Faza publications.

Fayyazi, G.H., Malikzadeh, H., & Pashaei, M.J. (2013). Nature of Meaning. Ayein -E- Hekmat. 5(16), 125-160.http://pwq.bou.ac.ir/article_10371.html

Fotouhi, M. (2005). Allegory: Quiddity, Types, Function. Journal of Faculty of Literature and Humanities, 12, 13 (47-49), 141-177. http://ensani.ir/fa/article/112804.

Ghaemei, F. (2010). Philosophical Allegory and Its Link with Molana’s Allegorical Literature in Masnavi. Quarterly journal of Persian literature of Islamic Azad University of Mashhad, 27, 48-66. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=133815

Gobadi, H. (1998). An Investigation on Cognition of Borders of Allegory and Symbol. Modares Humanities, 9, 13-26. https://www.noormags.ir/view/fa/articlepage/50051

Golchin, M. (2013). Allegory and its Various Structures in Molanas’ Masnavi. Stylistics of Persian vers and Prose, 6(3), 369-385. https://www.noormags.ir/view/fa/articlepage/1387225

Haji Ghasemi, K. (2011). Reflections on the Meaning of and Understanding Persian Islamic Architecture. SOFFEH, 21(52), 7-19. http://sofeh.sbu.ac.ir/article/view/20331

Hekmat, A.S. (1982). Allegories of Qur’an. Tehran: Qur’an Institute.

Jorjani, A. (1982). Asrar -al- Balaghe. (J. Tajlil, Trans.). Tehran: University of Tehran Press.

Kamālizadeh, T. (2010). The Metaphysical Foundations of Art and Beauty According to Shahab-Addin Suhrawardi. Tehran: Farhangestan Honar.

Laseau, P. (1998). Graphic Thinking for Architects & Designers. (S. Aghaei, Trans.). Isfahan: Khak Publications.

Mortazaei, J. (2011). Allegory: Image or Innovative literary. Persian Language and Literature Studies, 4(12), 29-38. http://rpll.ui.ac.ir/article_19308.html

Nadeimi, H. (2006). There is no Hope of Emancipation When Everyone Is the Wall. Naghshe e now, 18, 19.

Nadeimi, H. (1999). An Inquiry into the Design Process. SOFFEH, 9(29), 94-103. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=91230

Naghizadeh, M., & Aminzadeh, B. (2000). The Relation of Form and Meaning in Explaining Art Foundation, HONAR-HA-YE- ZIBA, 8, 16-32. https://journals.ut.ac.ir/article_14013.html

Nasr, S.H. (1996). Art and Spirituality, (R. Falsafian, Trans.). Tehran: Institution of Religious Studies of Art.

Nasr, S.H. (1995). The Islamic intellectual tradition in Persia. (S. Dehghani, Trans.). Tehran: Ghasideh Sara.

Noghrehkar, A. (2008). Introduction to Islamic Identity in Architecture. Tehran: Ministry of Housing and Urban Development.

Norberg-Schulz, C. (1986). Architecture: Meaning and Place: Selected Essays. New York: Electa/Rizzoli.

Norberg-Schulz, C. (2008). Meaning in Western Architecture. (M. Ghayyomi Bidheni, Trans.). Tehran: Farhngestan e Honar.

Parvizi, E., & Pourmand, H. (2012). Manifested Spiritual Universe in Safavid Architecture Decorating, Case Study: Imam Mosque of Isfahan. ARMANSHAHR Architecture and Urban Development, 4(9), 31-44. http://www.armanshahrjournal.com/article_33206.html 

Pourjafar, M., Akbarian, R., Ansari, M., & Pourmand, H. (2007). Philosophical Approach in Studying Iranian Architecture. SOFFEH, 16 (45), Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University, 90-105. http://sofeh.sbu.ac.ir/article/view/30876

Purnamdarian, T. (1989). Symbolism and Symbolic Stories in Persian Literature. Tehran: Elmifarhangi Publication.

Raeisi, M. (2017). An Introduction to the Effect of the Foundations of Secularism on the Contemporary Architecture and Urban Planning of Iran. Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities, 9(2), 135-162. http://www.isih.ir/article_253.html

Rezazadeh, N., & Shahroudi, F. (2012). An Inquiry on Types of Allegory and Proverb in Quran. Marifat, 21(180), 57-68. https://www.noormags.ir/view/fa/articlepage/958992

Sajedi, A. (2006). Ontology of Meaning. Marefatfalsafi, 2(9), 85-113. http://marefatfalsafi.nashriyat.ir/node/2359

Schuon, F. (2009). Castes and Races: Principles and Criteria of Universal Art. (B. Alikhani, & K. Sasani, Trans.). Tehran: Iran Research Institute of Philosophy.

Sheiri, G. (2010). Allegory and a New Image of Its Types and Functions. Kavosh Nameh, 11(20), 33-54. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=115993

Sharif Razi. (2000). Nahjul Balagha. (M. Dashti, Trans.). Qom: Al-Hadi Publication.

Shokr allahi, E. (2004). Masal Abad, Summarization and Re Writing of Majma-al-Mesal and Jame-al- Tamsil. (M. Hileroudi, Eds.). Tehran: Ahl-e-Ghalam. 

Vafaei, A., & AghaBabaei, S. (2013). An Investigation of Allegories’ Use in Educational Literary. Bulletin of Educational Literature, 5(18), 23-46. http://www.iaujournals.ir/article_640517.html

Winters, E. (2005), Philosophical and Psychological Bases of Space Understanding. (A. Jolfayei, Trans.). Isfahan: Khak Publication.

Zeyf, SH. (2004). The History and Evolution of Rhetoric Sciences. (M.R, Torki, Trans.). Tehran: SAMT.

Zolfagharzadeh, H. (2014). An Analysis of Attitudes to Islamic Architecture. Quarterly Journal of Islamic Architecture Researches, 1(3), 29-45. http://jria.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=153&slc_lang=fa&sid=1&printcase=1&hbnr=1&hmb=1