تدوین، غربالگری و اولویت‌بندی شاخص‎های برنامه‎ریزی پروژه‎های محرک توسعه شهری، مورد مطالعاتی: بررسی شاخص‏های احصا شده درکلانشهر تهران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‏ریزی شهری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دکتری گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‏ریزی شهری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، تهران، ایران

3 لیسانس علوم سیاسی، دانشکده افسری، دانشگاه امام علی(ع)، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هر شهر دارای ویژگی منحصر به فردی است که می‏توان از آن به‌عنوان محرکی برای توسعه در برنامه‎ریزی شهری کلان‎نگر و مشارکتی بهره جست. این ویژگی می‏تواند به‌عنوان ابزاری کاربردی برای دولت‎ها و مدیریت شهری در اداره منطقی و اصولی شهرها به‌کار گرفته شود. در این رویکرد، ویژگی مذکور می‏تواند پروژه‎‎ای باشد که به‌عنوان محرکی برای رفع فقر، جرم و جنایت، ایجاد اشتغال و پویایی شهری و بررسی دوباره‏ای از زندگی محله‏ای و حقوق مدنی با توجه به تفاوت‌های قومی و تقابل‎های فرهنگی عمل نماید که نیازمند اصلاحاتی در زمینه سیاسی، مدیریت و رهبری، اقتصادی، قانونی، اجتماعی و محیط‏زیستی است. هدف از این تحقیق استخراج، غربالگری و اولویت‏بندی شاخص‎های ضروری برنامه‏ریزی پروژه‎های محرک توسعه شهری است. اعمال این نوع پروژه‎ها نیازمند بررسی دقیق و عمیق در سه سطح کلان، میانی و خرد هستند. از آنجا که این پروژه‏ها مستعد و بسترساز رشد و توسعه و جهانی شدن شهرها هستند و در بافت ناکارآمد با ظرفیت بالا ایجاد می‏شوند و از طرفی هرگونه توسعه ملی تا حدود زیادی منوط به توسعه مناطق شهری به‌ویژه کلانشهرها می‎باشد، لذا در این مقاله پس از احصای شاخص‎ها و اولویت‏بندی آن‌ها به کمک تکنیک دلفی فازی، وضعیت کلانشهر تهران با سه مشخصه 1- دارا و مطلوب، 2- دارا ولی ضعیف و 3- فاقد، مورد بررسی و اولویت‏بندی قرار گرفتند تا سرخطی باشند جهت اعمال این پروژه‏ها در سطح خرد برای تجدید‌حیات، توسعه مجدد و یا بازآفرینی بافت‎های فرسوده، اراضی متروکه صنعتی، اراضی رها شده و فضاهای ناکارآمد شهری در تهران که نیازمند درانداختن طرحی نو هستند. در انتها پیشنهادات کاربردی جهت کاربست مؤلفه‏های برنامه‏ریزی پروژه‏های محرک توسعه شهری در دو سطح کلان و میانی با محوریت تهران ارائه شده است

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Development, Sift, and Prioritization of Urban Catalyst Projects Planning Indicators; Case Study: Analysis of Indicators in Tehran Metropolis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahim Sarvar 1
  • Nahid Nematikutenaee 2
  • Mohammadbagher Nematikutenaei 3
1 Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D. of Geography and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran, Iran
3 Bachelor of Political Science, Imam Ali Officers’ University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Each city has a unique feature that can be used as a stimulus for the development of macro and participatory urban planning. This feature can be applied as a tool for the rational and normative management of cities by governments and urban managers. In this approach, this feature can be a project that serves as a catalyst to address poverty, crime, job creation and urban dynamism, as well as to re-examine neighborhood life and civil rights with respect to ethnic differences and cultural conflicts that require political, managerial and leadership, economic, legal, social and environmental reformations. The present study aims to extract, sift, and prioritize the indispensable indicators for urban catalyst projects planning. Applying these types of projects requires careful and in-depth examination at three levels: macro, meso, and micro. Since these projects pave the way for the growth, development and globalization of cities and implemented in inefficient urban fabric with high capacity, and on the other hand, any national development largely depends on the development of urban areas, especially metropolitan areas, in this research, after the development and sift of indicators and prioritization of them using Fuzzy Delphi model, the status que of Tehran metropolis was studied and prioritized with three characteristics: 1- enjoyment at desirable level, 2- enjoyment at poor level, and 3- Lack, in order to be used as headlines to implement these projects at micro level to revitalize, re-develop or regenerate worn-out textures, brownfields, industrial abandoned lands, and inefficient urban spaces in Tehran metropolitan area that require new plan. At the end, practical suggestions are made for the implementation of the components of urban catalyst projects planning at the two meso- and macro- levels focusing on Tehran

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Catalyst
  • Planning Indicators
  • Fuzzy Delphi Model
  • Tehran Metropolis
Agarwal, R., Wolfgang. G., & Joy, P. (2012). Meta-SWOT: Introducing a New Strategic Planning Tool. Journal of Business Strategy, 33, 2. 12-21. DOI: 10.1108/02756661211206708

Alberti, M., & Waddell, P. (2000). An Integrated Urban Development and Ecological Simulation Model. Environmental Modeling and Assessment. 1. 215-227. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019140101212

Alizadeh, A., & Kianfar, F. (2013). Developing a Modeli for Citizens’ Satisfaction with Public Sector Services Based on Rough Sets Theory: a Case Study of Tehran Municipality. Tehnički Vjesnik, 20(5), 795-802.

Attoe, W., & Logan, D. (1989). American Urban Architecture: Catalysts in the Design of Cities. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Badach, J., & Małgorzata, D. (2017). Concept of ‘Good Urban Governance’ and Its Application in Sustainable Urban Planning. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. DO - 10.1088/1757-899X/245/8/082017

Bernasconi-Osterwalder, N., & Johnson, L. (2010). International Investment Law and Sustainable Development. Key cases from 2000–2010

Berry, J., Kent, P., & Ken, T. (1993). The Rebirth of Urban Democracy. Bibliovault OAI Repository, the University of Chicago Press. 23. DOI: 10.2307/2076079

Bloc, T., & Paredis, E. (2013). Urban Development Projects Catalyst for Sustainable Transformations: the Need for Entrepreneurial Political Leadership. Journal of Cleaner Production. Centre for Sustainable Development, Department of Political Science, Ghent University, Poel 16, 9000 Gent, Belgium, 50, 181-188 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.11.021

Bohannon, L.C. (2004). The Urban Catalyst Concept. Wendy Jacobson. Blacksburg, Virginia. April 27

Bouzon, M., Govindan, K., Rodriguez, C.M.T., & Campos, L.M.S. (2016). Identification and Analysis of Reverse Logistics Barriers Using Fuzzy Delphi Method and AHP. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 108, 182-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.05.021

Carter, S., Mason, C., & Tagg, S. (2008). “Lifting the Barriers to Growth in UK Small Businesses” , FSB Biennial Membership Survey.

Cohen, M.D., March, J.G., & Olsen, J.P., (1972). A Garbage can Model of Organizational Choice. Administrative Science Quarterly,17(1), 1-25. DOI: 10.2307/2392088

Colic, R. (2015). Integrated Urban Development Strategy as an Instrument for Supporting Urban Government. Serbian Architectural Journal. Original Scientific Article Approval Date 30 10 2015 UDK BROJEVI, 711.4(497.11) 711.2(497.11) COBISS.SR-ID 221842956. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320987490_INTEGRATED_URBAN_DEVELOPMENT_STRATEGY_AS_AN_INSTRUMENT_FOR_SUPPORTING_URBAN_GOVERNANCE

Collin, W.R. (1997). Environment Equity: A Law and Planning Approach to Environmental Racism. Perivale 

Corcoran, M. (2005). Finding Your Place: Forging an Identity and Sense of Belonging in Suburban Communities International Symposium on Civic and Social Life in the Suburbs, NUI Maynooth

Davis, J. (2009). Urban Catalysts in Theory and Practice. Architectural Research Quarterly, 13 (3-4), 295 – 306. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S135913551000014X 

Dear, M., & Wolch, J. (1989). “How Territory Shapes Social Life”. The Power of Geography. Boston: Unwin Hyman.

Deloitte, (2013). Government Efficiency Innovate. Scale, Measure, Incent. The Government Summit Thought Leadership Series. United Arab Emirates. Febrary. https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/global/Documents/Public-Sector/dttl-ps-govtefficiency-08082013.pdf

Dilts, D.A. (2004). Introduction to Microeconomics E201. Indiana - Purdue University - Fort Wayne for Use in Classes Offered by the Department of Economics, School of Business and Management Sciences at I.P.F.W. by permission of Dr. David A. Dilts.

Dixon, L., Gates, S.M., Kapur, K., Seabury, S.A., & Talley, E. (2006). The Impact of Regulation and Litigation on Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Kauffman-RAND Center for the Study of Small Business and Regulation. A Rand Institute for Civil Justice Center. https://www.rand.org/pubs/working_papers/WR317.html

Edwards, S., & Economy, P. (2010). Home-Based Business for Dummies, Wiley Publishing, Inc. 

Finmark, T. (2006). Working in Home: A Guidebook for Working Women and Homemakers. Corpcom Services Sdn, Bhd Publication, Singapore.

Foster, J.B. (2002). Ecology Against Capitalism, New York, Monthly Review Press. 

Francin, K.I. (2015). Urban Catalyst. Supervised Research Project Submitted to Prof. Raphaël Fichler. School of Urban Planning. McGill University.May.

Franklin, J. (2004). Politics, Trust and Networks: Social Capital in Critical Perspective. London South Bank University. Families & Social Capital ESRC Research Group ISBN 1-874418-43-8

Fung, A. (2005). Empowered Participation: Reinventing Urban Democracy. Perspectives on Politics – perspect polit. 3. 

Furniss, N. (1974). “The Political Significance of Decentralization”. Journal of Politics, 36(4), 958-982. DOI: 10.2307/2129402 

Gylfason, T. (2001). Lessons from the Dutch Disease: Causes, Treatment, and Cures. Institute of Economic Studies Working Paper Series. ISSN 1011-8888. 

Habibi, A., Sarafrazi, A., & Izadyar, S. (2014). Delphi Technique Theoretical Framework in Qualitative Research, The International Journal Of Engineering And Science (IJES), 3(4), 08-13. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272177606_Delphi_Technique_Theoretical_Framework_in_Qualitative

Hauner, D., & Kyobe, A. (2008). Determinants of Government Efficiency. IMF Working Paper Fiscal Affairs Department Determinants of Government Efficiency. Authorized for distribution by Steven A. Symansky September. 

Hegedüs, J., Horváth, V., Elsinga, M., Haffner, M., Norris, M., Carnegie, A., & Droste, C. (2015). Housing Review. Affordability Sustainability Livability. Housing Review of 15 Countries in Europe and Central Asia.

Hsueh, S.L. (2013). A Fuzzy Logic Enhanced Environmental Protection Education Model for Policies Decision Support in Green Community Development. The ScientificWorld Journal, 1-8. DOI: 10.1155/2013/250374

Ishikawa, A., Amagasa, M., Shiga, T., Tomizawa, G., Tatsuta, R., & Mieno, H. (1993). The Max–min Delphi Method and Fuzzy Delphi Method via Fuzzy Integration. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 55, 241–253. 10.1007/978-3-531-91686-6_1

Kedogo, J., Simone, S., & Hamhaber, J. (2018). Good Urban Governance, Actors’ Relations and Paradigms: Lessons from Nairobi, Kenya, and Recife, Brazil.

Kersting, N., Janice, C., Andrew, N., Dele, O., & Hellmut, W. (2009). Good Local Governance. Local Government Reform in Global Perspective. An Introduction. 

Kim, J., & Kaplan, R. (2004). Physical and Psychological Factors in Sense of Community. New Urbanist Kentlands and Nearby Orchard Village. Environment and Behavior, 36, 313. DOI: 10.1177/0013916503260236

Knieling, M., & Jörg, A. (2014). Metropolitan Regions Definitions, as Governance System, Typologies and Recommendations for Development Cooperation. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. 

Kongsombat, P. (2010). Study on Urban Catalyst for Sustanable Urban Developement Case Study of IMS/Solaria Plaza Hotel II Palazzo.

La Portal, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., Shleifer, S., & Vishny, R. (1999). Oxford University Press. JLIO, V15 N1. 

Lam, M.K.N. (2000). Government Intervention in the Economy. A Comparative Analysis of Singapore and Hong Kong. Public Administration and Development Public Admin. Dev. 20, 397±421. https://olemiss.edu/courses/pol387/lam00.pdf

Lewis, J., & Miller, T. (eds.) (2003). Critical Cultural Policy Studies: A Reader. Oxford, Blackwell. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/book/10.1002/9780470690079

Li, Y., Pickles, A., & Savage, M. (2005). Social Capital and Social Trust in Britain. European Sociological Review, 21(2,), 109–123. DOI: 10.1093/esr/jci007

Lotfi, S., Pourahmad, A., Omranzadeh, B., & Mahdi, A. (2015). The Failure of the Integrated Urban Management in Iran: an Analysis From the Perspective of Interactive and Legal Problems between the State and Municipality. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2490.2569

Lundqvist, M. (2007). Sustainable Cities in Theory and Practice A Comparative Study of Curitiba and Portland. Karlstads universitet 651 88 Karlstad Tfn 054-700 10 00 Fax 054-700 14 60 Information@kau.se www.kau.se. 

Mallick, S. (2007). Sustainable Income, Employment, and Income Distribution in Indonesia. The Pakistan Development Review. 46 (4) 579–596. DOI: 10.30541/v46i4IIpp.579-596

Malul, M., Shoham, A., & Rosenboim, M. (2009). The International Imperfect Banking Systems: the Israeli Case. EuroMed Journal of Business, 4(2), 159-172. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/14502190910976510/full/html

Martínez, L., Short, J., & Ortíz, M. (2015). Citizen Satisfaction with Public Goods and Government Services in the Global Urban South: A Case Study of Cali, Colombia. Habitat International 49, 84-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.05.015

McGill, Rd. (1998). Urban Management in Developing Countries. Cities, 15(6), 463_471. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-2751(98)00041-9

Mohammadi, S., & Moein nezhad, B. (2015). The Role of Disclosure and Transparency in Financial Reporting. International Journal of Accounting and Economics Studies, 3(1), 60-62. DOI: 10.14419/ijaes.v3i1.4549

Ndreu, A. (2016). The Definition and Importance of Local Governance. Social and Natural Sciences Journal. 10(1), 5-8. DOI: 10.12955/snsj.v10i1.730

Office of Fair Trading. (2009). Government in Markets Why Competition Matters – a Guide for Policy Makers. Office of Fair Trading. 

Oswalt, P., Overmeyer, K., & Misselwitz, P. (2013). Urban Catalyst: The Power of Temporary Use. Berlin: DOM.

Paitoonpong, S., Shigeyuki, A., & Nipon, P. (2008). The Meaning of “Social Safety Nets”. Journal of Asian Economics. 19(5-6), 467-473. DOI: 10.1016/j.asieco.2008.09.011

Pennsylvania, (2014). “Brownfield Development Quide”, Department of Environmental Protection.

Pinson, G. (2010). Urban and Regional Planning. Bevir, Mark. Encyclopedia of Governance. 2, Sage Publications, 1005-1007, 2007.

Polacek, R., McDaid, D., Fernandez, J., Matosevic, T., Penn, H., Korintus, M., Verheyde, M.,Wynne, R., Cullen, K., Dolphin, C., Bauer, E., Czischke, D., Hegedus, J., Teller, N., & Pittini, A. (2011). Study on Social Services of General Interest. Final Report, European Commission, Directorate General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion, Brussels, Belgium. https://vbn.aau.dk/en/activities/study-on-social-services-of-general-interest-final-report

Purcell, M. (2006). Urban Democracy and the Local Trap. Urban Studies, 43 (11), 1921– 1941. https://doi.org/10.1080/00420980600897826

Qazimi, S. (2014). Sense of Place and Place Identity. European Journal of Social Sciences Education and Research. 1(1), 306. DOI: 10.26417/ejser.v1i1.p306-310

Quesnel, L. (2000). Urban Democracy in Big Cities in Canada. In: Gabriel O.W., Hoffmann-Martinot V., Savitch H.V. (eds) Urban Democracy. Reihe: Städte und Regionen in Europa, 1. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden

Rafik, A., Aliev, R.R., Aliyeva, A.I., & Alieva, K.R. (2004). Fuzzy Delphi Method Journal “Knowledge” “Education” Society of Azerbaijan Republic. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299510278_Fuzzy_Delphi_Method

Rao, S., Scott, Z., & Munawwar, A. (2015). Decentralisation and Local Government: Topic Guide. GSDRC, University of Birmingham. DOI. 10.13140/RG.2.1.4337.7364

Ritzer, G. (2007). The Blackwell Companion to Gobalization. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 731p. ISBN: 9781405132749. DOI:10.1002/9780470691939

Root, L.S. (2010). Introduction to Social Welfare Policy and Services. Social Work 530 (Section 003) - Fall, 2010. University of Michigan. School of Social Work. 

Salehi, S., & Hajikhani, GH. (1997). Urban Planning Criteria for healty City Concept. EMR: WHO. 

Salim, M., Peng, X., Almaktary, S., & Karmoshi, S. (2017). The Impact of Citizen Satisfaction with Government Performance on Public Trust in the Government: Empirical Evidence from Urban Yemen. Open Journal of Business and Management, 2017, 5, 348-365. https://m.scirp.org/papers/75896

Sarvar, R., & Nematikutenaee, N. (2019). Urban Catalyst-A Strategy for Urban Development Planning and Management. Islamic Azad university, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran, ISBN: 978-964-10-5694-2

Shachar, A., & Felsenstein, D. (2002). Globalization Processes and their Impact on the Structure of the Telaviv Metropolitan area. DO - 10.1007/978-94-017-1408-2_3

Shah, A., heymans, C., Shah, S., & Steffinsen, J. (2006). Local Governance in Developing Countries. Word bank. September. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268523702_Local_Governance_In_Developing_Countries

Sherry R, A. (1969). “A Ladder of Citizen Participation,” Journal of the American Planning Association, 35(4), 216-224. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944366908977225

Shu-Yang, F., Bill, F., & Raymond, C. (2004). Principles and Practice of Ecological Design. Environmental Reviews, 12(2), 97-112. DOI: 10.1139/a04-005 

Soubbotina, p., & Sheram, A. (2000). Beyond Economic Growth. The World Bank, Washington D.C. 

Spicker, P. (2013). Principles of Social Welfare an Introduction to Thinking about the Welfare State. First Published 1988 by Routledge, ISBN 0-415-00630-9 and 0-415-00631-7. http://www.spicker.uk/books/Paul%20Spicker%20-%20Principles%20of%20Social%20Welfare.pdf

Spring Institute for Lived Theology. (2005). The Spirit of Social Hope. The Project on Lived Theology. CC.BY.NC.ND. https://www.livedtheology.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/20050400PPR.01-The-Spirit-of-Social-Hope-Spring-Institute-for-Lived-Theology.pdf

Stephen, M. (1999). “The Regulation of Urban Development: Lessons From International Experience,”Wisconsin-Madison CULER Working Papers 99-07, University of Wisconsin Center for Urban Land Economic Research.

Sternberg, E.S. (2002). “What Makes Buildings Catalytic? How Cultural Facilities Can Be Designed To Spur Surrounding Development”. Journal of Architecture and Planning Research, 19(1), 30-43. Chicago: Locke Science Publishing. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43030597

The WTO. (1995). Understanding the WTO. World Trade Organization. Created by Uruguay Round Negotiations (1986–94). https://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/tif_e.htm

UNDP. (1994). Human Development Report, New York: Oxford University Press

UNEP. (2016). Global Guide to Responsible Investment Regulation. PRI. Principles for Responsible investment. Delamedina, Christian. Soto Tania Ghossein. 

Van, D.P., & Poelhekke, F.S. (2008). Globalization and the Rise of Mega_Cities in the World. Cesifo Working paper. NO. 2208 Category 7: Trade Policy Februry. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5002714_Globalization_and_the_Rise_of_Mega-Cities_in_the_Developing_World

Williams, A.M., Belton, K.B., & Graham, J.D. (2017). A Smart Regulatory Process for Entrepreneurs and Small Businesses. ACCF. Americal council for Capital Formation. Center for policy research. http://accf.org/2017/04/24/a-smart-regulato

Worthington, S., & Welch, P. (2011). Banking without the Banks. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 29(2), 190-201. DOI: 10.1108/02652321111107657

Zhang, T., & Dong, H. (2008). Human-centred Design: an Emergent Conceptual Model, Include2009, Royal College of Art, April 8-10, 2009, London Include2009 Proceedings (ISBN: 978-1-905000-80-7). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/49402084_Human-centred_design_An_emergent_conceptual_model