تغییر مفهوم کارکردی حیاط خانه در گذشته و حال، مورد مطالعاتی: قشر مذهبی در شهر قم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده فنی پسران قم، دانشگاه فنی و حرفه‌ای، قم، ایران

2 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و هنر، دانشگاه کاشان، کاشان، ایران

3 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری و هنر، دانشگاه کاشان، کاشان، ایران

چکیده

مفهوم فضای باز در معماری مسکونی ایران در دهه‌های گذشته با تغییرات اساسی ایجاد شده توسط سیستم توده‌گذاری شهری و تعریف مفهوم جدیدی به نام حیاط نیمه‌خصوصی در واحدهای آپارتمانی دچار تغییر شده است. این پژوهش با بررسی ادبیات موجود، تغییر در کارکردها و فعالیت‌های حیاط را دسته‌بندی نموده است. سپس وضعیت مفاهیم گذشته در ذهن مردم معاصر (با تمرکز بر کارکردهای روزمره) به صورت میدانی تحلیل شده است. پژوهش ادبیات موضوع به صورت تفسیری تاریخی و مردم‌نگاری به دو صورت کمی و کیفی صورت گرفته است. نخست به‌صورت کمی برآوردی از نگرش دسته منتخبی از قشر مذهبی شهر قم به‌دست آمد و سپس از مصاحبه باز برای پژوهش کیفی استفاده شد تا تفسیر مردم‌نگارانه مطمئن‌تری، انجام شود. برای تحقیق کیفی شش خانوار به صورت طیف زمانی و در دو الگوی حیاط‌دار و آپارتمانی از میان قشر مذهبی و قشر متوسط ساکن قم انتخاب شده‌اند و اطلاعات مورد استفاده در این مقاله از میان مصاحبه‌های نیمه ساختاریافته طولانی استخراج شده است. براساس مرور ادبیات پژوهشی مربوط به حیاط در دوره اسلامی ایران در مسکن واجد مفاهیم بنیادی محرمیت، فضای زنانه، تمرکز فعالیت‌های خانگی و تقدس این مکان از دیدگاه دینی و اجتماعی است؛ بررسی‌های موردی این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که به‌رغم حذف واقعیت مفهومی حیاط از زندگی روزمره، همچنان تصویر ذهنی از به عنوان حیاط مرکز فعالیت و حیاط پیوسته با طبیعت و آسمان (به‌عنوان عنصر مقدس) در اذهان نسل‌های میانسال وجود دارد و در مورد جوان‌ترها نیز وجود این تصویر قابل ‌انکار نیست، اما مفاهیم مدرن سکونت و کم‌اهمیت شدن کار خانگی، عدم تمایل نسل‌های متأخر مذهبی را به بخشی از کارکردهای بنیادی حیاط ایجاد می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Change in the Functional Concept of the Courtyard from the Past to the Present; Case Study: Religious People of Qom

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Nari QomiQomi 1
  • Mahdi Momtahen 2
  • Ali Mahallatian 3
1 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Qom Boys Technical College, Technical and Vocational University, Qom, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Art, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
3 M.A.of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Art, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The concept of residential open space in Iranian architecture has fundamentally changed in recent decades due to changes made by the massing system in cities and the appearance of a new concept, i.e. semi-private courtyard, in apartment housing. In the present study, it is attempted to examine the changes in the uses and activities of the courtyard by reviewing the existing literature. Then, the status of past concepts in the minds of contemporary people is analyzed with the emphasis on everyday life activities by field study. The literature review of this research is historical and interpretative and the ethnography is performed both quantitatively and qualitatively. First, the attitude of the religious people selected in Qom is enquired qualitatively, and then, open-ended interviews are used for qualitative research to provide a more reliable ethnographic interpretation. For qualitative research, six religious families of middle income, who are living in a courtyard house or apartment in Qom, are selected (for each model of housing= 3 samples) considering a given period, and the information used in this study are extracted from long-term semi-structured interviews. According to the literature review on the courtyard in Iranian architecture in the Islamic period of Iran, housing has basic concepts of privacy, female space, the concentration of domestic activities, and the sacred space from a religious and social perspective. Case studies of this study show that although the conceptual reality of the courtyard has been removed from everyday life, middle-aged generations have still a mental image of the courtyard as a center for activity and space connected with nature and the sky (as a sacred element). The image is undeniable. However, the modern concepts of domesticity (family life) and the insignificance of housework make the later religious generations reluctant to use the courtyard with its basic uses.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Courtyard
  • House
  • Uses of Courtyard
  • Concept of the Courtyard
  • female space
  • Sanctity of the Place
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