خلاقیت معماری به مثابه معماری خلاقیت؛ تحلیل و رتبه‌‌بندی تأثیرات روانشناختی کالبد محور حس مکان بر خلاقیت کاربران محیط، مورد مطالعاتی: موسسات آموزش عالی شهر کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران..

3 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی،، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

خلاقیت یکی از ویژگی‌‌های بارز انسان بوده که جایگاه ویژه‌‌ای در جوامع بشری دارد و موضوع محوری بسیاری از تحقیقات علمی در حوزه‌‌های مختلف دانش از جمله روانشناسی محیطی قرار گرفته است. در این راستا، تحقیق حاضر به دنبال پاسخ به این سؤال بوده که اهمیت تأثیرات روانی عوامل کالبدی مکان معماری یا به عبارتی بُعد کالبدی حس مکان بر خلاقیت کاربران آن چقدر است و نقش طراحی معماری در جهت‌‌دهی و تقویت آن‌ها چیست؟ با توجه به این پرسش و نحوه پردازش به آن در تحقیقات مشابه پیشین، هدف از پژوهش حاضر تبیین الگوواره‌‌ای ویژگی‌‌ها و مکانیسم اثر مکان‌های تقویت‌‌کننده خلاقیت به واسطه شناسایی و دسته‌‌بندی عوامل کالبدی محیط‌‌‌‌های انسان‌‌ساخت است که بر تحریک خلاقیت تأثیر‌‌گذارند. لذا وجه تمایز این پژوهش در نگرش سیستماتیک حل مسئله و متعاقباً نوع نتایج آن می‌‌باشد. از حیث روش‌‌شناسی، پژوهش حاضر از روش‌‌ آمیخته (پیمایش کیفی و کمّی) در قالب نظریه‌‌یابی زمینه‌‌ای بهره برده که در آن یافته‌‌های حاصل از مطالعات گسترده اسنادی و میدانی (انجام مصاحبه و توزیع پرسشنامه) با اعمال روش‌‌های آماری (آزمون t یک‌‌نمونه‌‌ای و تحلیل همبستگی پیرسون) در یک مطالعه موردی هدفمند، تکمیل و اعتبارسنجی می‌‌شود. مطالعه مذکور شامل سه موسسه آموزش عالی فعال در حوزه معماری در شهر کرمانشاه است که در آن‌ها نمونه انتخابی از میان اساتید و دانشجویان مقاطع تحصیلات تکمیلی به ترتیب به صورت نمونه‌‌گیری در دسترس و تصادفی گزینش شده تا به شناسایی و بیان رفتارهای محرک خلاقیت خود و البته عوامل کالبدی تحریک و تأمین‌‌کننده آن فعالیت‌‌ها بپردازند. در نتیجه برخی از ویژگی‌‌های فضایی، فضاهای عملکردی و قابلیت‌‌های محیطی متناظر با آن‌ها به‌عنوان اجزاء فیزیکی اصلی مؤثر بر بروز خلاقیت معرفی شد و در نهایت به واسطه تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی به‌عنوان یک سری عوامل (صفات محیطی) مورد رتبه‌‌بندی قرار گرفت تا زمینه‌ساز شکل‌گیری استراتژی‌های اصلی در طراحی محیطی به صورت کلی و به‌ویژه در اختصاص به فضاهای آموزشی رشته معماری باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Architectural Creativity as Architecture of Creativity; Analysis and Rating of the Physics-Based Psychological Effects of the Sense of Place on Environment Users’ Creativity; Case Study: Higher Education Institutions of Kermanshah

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Rezaei 1
  • Ghazal Keramati 2
  • Mozayan Dehbashi Sharif 3
  • Mohammadreza Nasirsalami 4
1 Ph.D. of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism., Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran..
3 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism,, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran..
چکیده [English]

Creativity is one of the certain traits of human beings and is especially valuable in human societies as the central theme of many scientific researches in various sciences such as environmental psychology. Accordingly, the present research tries to answer the question “How much important are the effects of physical factors of architectural place on the users’ creativity and what is the role of architectural design in organizing and enhancing them?” Regarding this query and how it has been addressed in past researches, the present study aims to explain the main characteristics of creative places in a pattern form by identifying and categorizing the physical factors of any built environment that may influence the users’ creativity actively. It should be noted that what distinguishes this study from other research is its systematic approach in problem-solving and consequently the kind of its results. In terms of methodology, the configuration of the present research is based on the Grounded Theory and a mixed research method (qualitative and quantitative survey) in which the findings resulted from a comprehensive documentary and field (interview and questionnaire) study and in other words, its theoretical framework, are completed and validated by applying statistical techniques (One-sample t-test and Pearson correlation analysis) on the data collected in a purposeful case study. The samples of this case study include three universities in Kermanshah, Iran, consists of educational environments of architecture in which convenience-selected teachers and random-selected post-graduate students identified and expressed their creativity-stimulant behaviours as well as the physical items of the environment that afford those activities. Finally, it is concluded some of the spatial features, functional spaces, and their associated environmental affordances as the main items affecting the users’ creativity enhancement and continuity that ultimately have been classified and rated by an exploratory factor analysis as creativity-effective environmental attributes to be considered in designing the future environments in general and educational environments especially, as the main strategy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental Affordances
  • Environmental Perception
  • Environmental Behaviour
  • creativity
  • Educational Spaces of Architecture
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