بررسی تأثیر جهت گیری ساختمان بر مصرف انرژی سالیانه در مدارس نواحی گرم و خشک ایران، با استفاده از مدلسازی اقلیمی، مورد مطالعاتی: بررسی مدرسه تیپ دو کلاسه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه معماری، واحد زاهدان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، زاهدان، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه صنعتی جندی شاپور دزفول، دزفول، ایران

3 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران.

چکیده

ساختمان‌های مدارس که بخش عمده‌ای از ساختمان‌های عمومی را تشکیل می‌دهند؛ یکی از مهم‌ترین مصرف‌کننده‌های انرژی در ایران هستند. با توجه به شرایط فعلی ساخت و ساز به نظر می‌رسد با اصلاح روش‌های طراحی و ساخت بنا پتانسیل زیادی برای بهره‌وری انرژی وجود داشته باشد .اصلاح عوامل هندسی ساختمان، از جمله جهت‌گیری، یکی از این روش‌هاست که بررسی دقیق آن با توجه به تعداد زیاد مدارس دارای اهمیت خاصی است. در این مقاله یک مدرسه دو کلاسه با نقشه‌ای ساده که به صورت تیپ در مناطق گرم و خشک ایران ساخته می‌شود، در نظر گرفته شده و به کمک شبیه‌سازی رایانه‌ای تلاش شده است جهت‌گیری بهینه آن با دقت بالا برای شش شهر اصفهان، شیراز، زاهدان، قم، کرمان و یزد- که شهرهای دارای جمعیت بیش‌تر از 500 هزار نفر در منطقه گرم و خشک ایران هستند - محاسبه شود. جهت انجام این کار، برای هر شهر 72 مدل در جهت‌های مختلف با واریانس 5 درجه شبیه‌سازی شده و محدوده‌ای 10 درجه‌ای که حداقل مصرف انرژی سالیانه را داشته به‌دست آمده است. سپس شبیه‌سازی با واریانس 1 درجه در این محدوده مجدداً انجام شده و نتایج برای شش شهر مختلف با یکدیگر مقایسه شده است. درنتیجه مشاهده می‌شود که در شهر قم بیش‌ترین و در شهر یزد کم‌ترین میزان تأثیر جهت‌گیری این تیپ ساختمان بر مصرف انرژی وجود دارد. همچنین با وجود کم بودن درصد ذخیره انرژی سالیانه، با توجه به تعداد زیاد ساختمان‌های تیپ و عمر مفید 50 ساله آن‌ها در هر شش شهر، دقت در انتخاب جهت‌گیری در درازمدت ضرورت دارد. زیرا مقدار اندکی ذخیره سوخت درمصرف سالیانه یک بنا، به عدد قابل توجهی در سطح کشور درکل مدت بهره‌برداری تبدیل خواهد شد

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impact of Building Orientation on Annual Energy Consumption in Schools in Hot Arid Regions in Iran, Using Climate Modeling, Case Study: A Double-class School

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Aibaghi Esfahani 1
  • Kourosh Momeni 2
  • Faramarz Hassan Pour 3
1 Department of Architecture, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Department of Architecture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.
چکیده [English]

School buildings constitute a large part of the public buildings and thereby being the most important consumers of energy in Iran. Considering the current construction conditions, reforming construction and design methods seems to provide a lot of potential for energy efficiency. Considering a large number of schools in Iran, it is of special importance to carefully study such methods, one of which is to modify building geometry factors, including building orientation. In this study, a double-class school with a simple plan, as a typical building pattern in hot arid regions of Iran, is considered as a case study to accurately determine its optimal orientation for six cities of Isfahan, Shiraz, Zahedan, Qom, Kerman, and Yazd, as cities with over 500,000 people in the hot arid regions of Iran, using computer simulation. To this end, for each city, 72 models are simulated in different directions with a 5-degree variance, and a 10-degree range of the minimum annual energy consumption is obtained. Next, the simulation with a 1-degree variance is performed in the same range, and the results obtained for the six cities are compared. Finally, for this building type, the greatest and smallest impact of the building orientation on energy consumption is observed in Qom city and Yazd city, respectively. Also, despite the low percentage of annual energy savings, due to a large number of typical buildings in all six cities and their useful life span of 50 years, it is necessary to carefully choose the direction for the long period. Because the small amount of fuel storage during the annual consumption of a building will become a significant number at the national level during the entire period of operation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Building Orientation
  • Double-Class School
  • Hot arid climate
  • Energy efficiency
  • Climate modeling
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. (1981). ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals: An Instrument of Service Prepared for the Profession Containing a Technical Data Section of Reference Material Pertaining to Systems for Heating, Refrigerat-ing, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning.
ASHRAE. (2007).Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, Atlanta, GA: ASHRAE.
ASHRAE. (2009). ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals, Atlanta, GA: ASHRAE.
Crawley, D.B., Hand, J.W, Kummert, M., & Griffith, B.T. (2008). Contrasting the Capabilities of Building Energy Performance Simulation Pro-grams. Building and Environment, 43, 661-673. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.10.027
Crawley, D.B., Lawrie, L.K., Winkelmann, F.C., Buhl, W.F., Huang, Y.J., Pedersen, C.O., Strand, R.K., Liesen, R.J., Fisher, D.E., Witte, M.J., & Glazer, J. (2001). Energy Plus: Creating a New-generation Building Energy Simulation Program. Energy and Buildings, 33(4), 319-331. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7788(00)00114-6
Da Graça, V.A.C., Kowaltowski, D.C.C.K., Petreche, J.R.D. (2007). An Evaluation Method for School Building Design at the Preliminary Phase with Optimisation of Aspects of Environmental Comfort for the School System of the State São Paulo in Brazil. Building and Environment, 42(2), 984-999. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.10.020
De Wilde, P., & Coley, D. (2012). The Implications of a Changing Climate for Buildings. Building and Environment, 55, 1-7.
IEA. (2013). Energy Efficient Building Envelopes. Paris: International Energy Agency.
Im, P., & Haberl, J. (2006). A Survey of High Performance Schools, Proceedings of the Fifteenth Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates, Orlando, FL.
Iranian Fuel Conservation Organization. (2009). Modification of Energy Consumption Patterns in Schools and Offices.
Joshghani, M. (2001).Cooling and Heating Energy Consumption in School Buildings, Organization for Development Renovation and Equipping Schools of Iran. Journal of New School, 26, 18-20.
Kasmaee, M. (2003). Climate and architecture, 2nd edition, Isfahan, Khak Publications.
Khosrowshahi, M., & Kalirad, A. (2013). A Research Approach to the Extent and Area of Iran Deserts. Journal of Jangal va Marta. 98, 20-27.
Laustsen, J. (2008). Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings, IEA Information Paper, International Energy Agency, OECD/IEA, Communication and Information Office, Paris.
Mahlabani, Y., Faizi, G., & Khakzand, M. (2011). Lighting Program and Iranian Schools Lighting Requirements. International Journal of Archi-tectural Engineering & Urban Planning, 21, 1-11.
 Morrissey, J., Moore, T., & Horne, R.E. (2011). Affordable Passive Solar Design in a Temperate Climate: An Experiment in Residential Build-ing Orientation. Renewable Energy, 36(2), 568-577. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.08.013
N.T. Shabankareh, K., Khosrowshahi, M., & Qolampour, M. (2008). The Vegetative Territory of Desert Areas of Hormozgan Province. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research. 15(1)95-113.
Oberkampf, W.L., & Trucano, T.G. (2002). Verification and Validation in Computational Fluid Dynamics. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 38(3), 209-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-0421(02)00005-2
Pathirana, S., Rodrigo, A., & Halwatura, R. (2019). Effect of Building Shape, Orientation, Window to Wall Ratios and Zones on Energy Efficien-cy and Thermal Comfort of Naturally Ventilated Houses in Tropical Climate. Int J Energy Environ Eng, 10, 107-120. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40095-018-0295-3
Presidential Office for Management and Planning Organization. (2018). Iran’s Statistical Yearbook - 2016, Statistical Center of Iran. Office of the Head, Public Relations and International Cooperation.
 Rea, M.S. (2000). The IESNA Lighting Handbook: Reference & Application; Illuminating Engineering Society of North America: New York, NY, USA.
Susorova, I., Tabibzadeh, M., Rahman, A.L., Clack, H., & Elnimeiri, M. (2013). The Effect of Geometry Factors on Fenestration Energy Perfor-mance and Energy Savings in Office Buildings. Energy and Buildings, 57, 6-13.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.10.035
Vasaturo, R., Van Hooff, T., Kalkman, I., Blocken, B., & Van Wesemael, P. (2018). Impact of Passive Climate Adaptation Measures and Build-ing Orientation on the Energy Demand of a Detached Lightweight Semi-portable Building. Building Simulation, 11(6), 1163-1177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-018-0470-8
Watson, D., & Labs, K. (2010). Climatic Design: Theoretical and Practical Principles of Energy Use in Buildings. (Ghobadian.V, & Feyz Mahda-vi, M. Trans). Tehran, University of Tehran Press.
Zhang, A., Bokel, R., Dobbelsteen, A.V.D., Sun, Y., Huang, Q., & Zhang, Q. (2017). Optimization of Thermal and Daylight Performance of School Buildings Based on a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm in the Cold Climate of China. Energy and Buildings, 139, 371-384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2008.04.025
Zomorodian, Z.S., & Nasrollahi, F. (2013). Architectural Design Optimization of School Buildings for Reduction of Energy Demand in Hot and Dry Climates of Iran. Int. J. Archit. Eng. Urban Plan, (23), 41-50.