تأثیر فرهنگ بر فرم خانه‌های بومی شمال ایران، مورد مطالعاتی: خانه‌های بومی بابل و بابلسر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، گروه معماری، واحد ساری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ساری، ایران.

2 دانشیارگروه معماری و شهرسازی، واحد علوم تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

معماری بومی هر منطقه تحت تأثیر اقلیم، فرهنگ و معیشت مردم شکل می‌گیرد؛ بر همین اساس ﺷﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﻧﻪها در این مناطق تحت تأثیر ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺪدی می‌باشد ﻛﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻲ این عوامل از لحاظ ﻣﻴﺰان اﻫﻤﻴﺖ و اثرﮔﺬاری در ﻳﻚ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﺮار نخواهند داشت. ﻳﻜﻲ از ﻣﻬم‌ترﻳﻦ وﻳﮋﮔﻲ‌ﻫﺎ، فرهنگ میﺑﺎﺷﺪ. با بیان این مشکل هدف اصلی این پژوهش بررسی شناخت و معرفی برخی از ویژگی‌های معماری بومی و فرهنگی مساکن شمال ایران در گذشته جهت بهره‌برداری در خانه‌های معاصر می‌باشدکه براساس دو نگرش بومی و فرهنگی مورد بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. برای دستیابی به اهداف پژوهش با روش ترکیبی نمونه‌های موردی با برداشت میدانی خانه‌های بومی روستایی حوزه مرکزی استان مازندران در شهرستان‌های بابل و بابلسر، مورد بررسی قرار گرفته شد. جهت تعمیم هر چه بهتر نتایج داده‌های به‌دست آمده از مطالعات بررسی شده بر روی نمونه‌ها، آن‌ها را به صورت تصادفی و در منطقه‌هایی که پراکندگی مناسب برای پوشش دادن کل منطقه را داشته باشد، انتخاب شدند و نیز در روش کیفی با مطالعه مردم‌شناسی از طریق مصاحبه با ساکنان این خانه‌ها، به مؤلفه‌های فرهنگی و سبک زندگی تأثیرگذار بر فرم خانه‌ها پرداختیم و در نهایت نتایج به صورت جداولی که در آن‌ها مقوله فرهنگ در ارتباط با شکل خانه مشخص شده، ارائه شد؛ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ روی ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﻫﺎی ﻣﻮرد ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ در ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﻣؤﻳﺪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﻜﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻧﺤﻮه ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﭘﺬﻳﺮی ﺷﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﻧﻪ از ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ در ﮔﺮو ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ وﺟﻮه ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ و ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﺤﺘﻮاﻳﻲ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ و ارﺗﺒﺎط آن‌ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ. اﻳﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ، ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﺳﻠﺴﻠﻪ‌ﻣﺮاﺗﺒﻲ از دروﻧﻲ‌ترین ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﺎ ﺑﻴﺮوﻧﻲ‌ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ، ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ ارﺗﺒﺎط داﺷﺘﻪ و در ﻣﻌﻤﺎری ﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ و ﺟﻬﺖ ﻣﻲدﻫﻨﺪ.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Culture on The Vernacular Houses in Northern Iran; Case Studies: Vernacular Houses in Babol and Babolsar

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin Jafari 1
  • Hossein Zabihi 2
1 Ph.D. Candidate of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch, Sari, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Architecture and Urbanism, Department of Architecture and Urbanism, Islamic Azad University, Research and Science Branch, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Vernacular architecture of each region is formed under the influence of the climate, culture, and people’s livelihood. Accordingly, the form of the houses in these regions is affected by various factors, all of which are not of the same importance and impact. One of the most significant features is culture. According to the research problem, the present study aimed to identify and introduce some features of the vernacular and cultural architecture of the houses of northern Iran in the past to be applied in the contemporary houses based on the cultural and vernacular approaches. The mixed method of the case studies or the field research of the rural vernacular houses of the central area of Mazandaran province, namely Babol and Babolsar, were applied to achieve the research purpose. The samples were randomly selected in areas with good dispersion to cover the whole region to generalize the results of studies on the studied samples to the whole statistical population. The qualitative research method and anthropology were used by interviewing the residents to analyze the cultural components and effective lifestyle in the form of the houses. Finally, the results were presented in tables, in which the relationship between the culture and form of the house was determined. The findings indicate that influence of the culture on the form of the house can be discovered based on the recognition of the various aspects and the content elements of the culture and their interrelationships. These elements are related hierarchically from the most inner level to the most exterior level and form and direct the architecture of the house.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Vernacular architecture
  • culture
  • form of the house
  • Typology
  • Lifestyle
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