کاربرد فناوری نانو در معماری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

کارشناس ارشد معماری، پردیس بین المللی کیش، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

در ابتدای هزاره سوم میلادی، فناوری از جنس نانو، نوید انقلاب صنعتی دیگری را م یدهد که از آن به عنوان موج چهارم انقلاب صنعتی یاد می شود. بسیاری از پژوهشگران بر این باورند که در آینده ای نه چندان دور همه اشیا بر مبنای مقیاس نانو ساخته شده و خواصشان در آن مقیاس شکل می گیرد و تولید همه اشیای دست ساز بشر دچار تحول خواهد شد. بنابراین تغییر و تحول مصالح ساختمانی و فناوری ساخت امری امکان پذیر به نظر می رسد و باید از هم اکنون تأثیرات آن بر معماری مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. این مقاله بر آن است تا تاثیرات فناوری نانو در حوزه معماری را با مطالعه کاربرد فناوری نانو در عرصه معماری و بهر هگیری از مصالح نانو بنیان و تغییر ساختار یاخته ای و فرمی معماری مورد بررسی قرار دهد. چهارچوب نظری پژوهش بر اساس اهمیت به کارگیری مصالح نانو بنیان و ساخت و ارائه طرح هایی برمبنای بهره گیری از ساختار علم طبیعی یا همان بیونیک استوار شده است. روش تحقیق به کار گرفته شده در این مقاله، روش تحقیقات کاربردی و بر اساس خصوصیت موضوع روش توصیفی است. تأثیر فراگیر نانو فناوری در زندگی بشر و نحوه ارتباط او با محیط اطراف و ساختمان ها اجتناب ناپذیر و غیر قابل تصور است. بنابراین مصالح نانو بنیان باید به مرور جایگزین مصالح سنتی شوند تا بتوان در صنعت ساخت و ساز تحویلی عظیم را به وجودآورد از سوی دیگر ارائه طرح های معمارانه بر اساس ساختار موفولوژی و یاخت های نانو به عنوان پادزهری برای بناهای فرم محور امروزی خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Nanotechnology Applications in Architecture

نویسنده [English]

  • Ladan Vojdanzadeh
Master of Architecture, Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

At the beginning of the third millennium, Nano-technology causes another industrial revolution. Nanotechnology, the science of manufacturing materials at a tiny scale, creates new possibilities to make dramatic improvements in our lives. Nanotechnology is an exciting area of scientific development which promises “more for less”. It offers ways to create smaller, cheaper, lighter and faster devices that can do more and cleverer functions, use less raw materials and consume less energy. It represents a whole new method of manufacturing, which achieves control at the atomic scale. It is better described as a collection of technologies which are genuinely “disruptive” – that is, they will render many existing technologies and processes obsolete and create entirely new types of products. Today, there are more than 450 manufacturer-identified nanotechnology-enabled products in the commercial market and “over 600 raw materials, intermediate components and industrial equipment items” used by Nano manufacturers and many more are sure to be followed, given the large investments in research, development, and commercialization. Many researchers believe that over the coming years and decades, nanotechnologies are set to make an enormous impact on manufacturing and service industries, on electronics, information technology, and on many other areas of life, from medicine to energy conservation. All objects are going to make on base of Nano scale and their properties form in this scale in future. Construction materials and manufacturing technology change soon, so we have to examine its impact on architecture.
Applications of nanotechnology:
- Environmental Protection
- Sea Industries
- Medicine
- Electronics and Computer
- Biotechnology
Nano architecture combines Nano technology with architecture and its versatile effects. For the architecture profession, nanotechnology will greatly impact construction materials and their properties. Materials will behave in many different ways as we are able to precisely control their properties at the Nano-scale. The biggest ideas in today architecture are coming out of the science of the small. Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter at the molecular scale, promises to transform architecture in ways we can hardly imagine today. The nanotech revolution can bring dramatic improvements in building performance, energy efficiency and sustainability to building projects. By building construction and operation estimated to be a trillion dollar per year for a worldwide industry, it is to be expected that Nano material and nanotechnology will play an increasing role in the construction industry. According to Nanowerk “dozens of building materials incorporate nanotechnology, from self-cleaning windows to flexible solar panels to Wi-Fi blocking paint,” and “many more are in development, including self-healing concrete, materials to block ultraviolet and infrared radiation, smog-eating coatings and light-emitting walls and ceilings.”
Nanotechnology and Architecture/Functions and Applications:
- Self-cleaning/ Easy-to-clean
- Air-purifying
- Anti-fogging
- Thermal Insulation
- Temperature Regulation
- UV Protection
- Solar Protection
- Fire-proof
- Anti-graffiti
- Anti-reflective
- Antibacterial
- Anti-fingerprints
- Scratchproof and Abrasion Resistant
However, if the researchers in this field put together with an ethical set of guidelines, then we can develop nanotechnology safely while still reaping its promised benefits. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of this technology in architecture. In this essay, descriptive method has chosen as a research method. So we present a definition of nanotechnology and its scientific aspects, study of nanotechnology materials applications in construction industry and case study, and also natural structures in architecture. Also, we emphasise on the advantage and side effect of this technology to use it carefully. It would be difficult to deny the potential benefits of nanotechnology and stop development of research related to it, since it has already begun to penetrate many different fields of research. Thus, Nano materials should replace with traditional materials as they will cause huge changes in construction. The architectural design based on Nano contracture offers an antidote to today’s form-driven practice. However, nanotechnology can be developed using guidelines to insure that the technology does not become too potentially harmful. As any new technology, it is impossible to stop every well-funded organization which may seek to develop the technology for harmful purposes.Effects of Nano architecture application:
- Reducing Construction Waste (in Comparison with Traditional System)
- Reducing Buildings Materials
- Improving the Quality of Materials
- Reduce the Consumption of Fossil Energy
- Reduce Maintenance Costs
- Preservation and Conservation
- Economical
- Design Ideally Space
- Compatibility with Nature
- Create Stable Structures

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nanotechnology
  • Architecture
  • Nano-material
  • Bionic
  • Sustainable Architecture

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