قیاس تحلیلی نقش فضاهای نیمه‌باز مسکونی بر شکل‌گیری شیوه زندگی و نظام رفتاری ساکنان در خانه‌های بومی دیروز و مسکن امروز، مورد مطالعاتی: شهر مشهد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه معماری و شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، موسسه آموزش عالی خاوران، مشهد، ایران.

2 مدرس معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، مؤسسه آموزش عالی خاوران، مشهد، ایران.

3 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، مؤسسه آموزش عالی خاوران، مشهد، ایران.

4 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد نیشابور، نیشابور، ایران.

چکیده

اکثریت نظریه‌پردازان حوزه معماری و فرهنگ بر تأثیر شکل و کالبد فضا بر شیوه زندگی و رفتار انسان تأکید دارند چرا که فرم، شکل و سازمان فضایی خانه‌ها در یک همسایگی می‌تواند زندگی ساکنانش را حمایت یا مختل نماید. از جمله اندام‌های فضایی تأثیرگذار بر شیوه زندگی ساکنان، فضاهای نیمه‌باز مسکونی است. فضاهای نیمه‌باز، فرصتی برای ارتباط بیش‌تر با محیط بیرون و مکانی برای بروز برخی از رفتارهای حاصل از شیوه زندگی می‌باشد. در پژوهش حاضر به خوانش و فهم ویژگی‌های کالبدی- فضایی در فضاهای نیمه‌باز مسکونی گذشته و امروز پرداخته شده است. در خانه‌های بومی سنتی، فضاهای نیمه‌بازی نظیر ایوان، صفه و طارمی وجود داشته که نقش به‌سزایی در بروز شیوه زندگی و نظام رفتارها داشته‌اند، لذا هدف از پژوهش حاضر قیاس تطبیقی تأثیر این ویژگی‌ها بر میزان مطلوبیت فضایی مسکن بومی- سنتی در گذشته و خانه‌های امروزی می‌باشد. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش ترکیبی بوده که شامل روش تاریخی، توصیفی و تحلیلی می‌باشد. در جمع‌آوری داده‌های کیفی از مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای، مشاهده، برداشت میدانی، مصاحبه و پرسشنامه استفاده شده و داده‌های کمی از طریق شبیه‌سازی به‌وسیله نرم‌افزار Ucl depth map به‌دست آمده است و در نهایت برای تحلیل داده‌ها و نتیجه‌گیری از روش استدلال منطقی استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که در خانه‌های بومی- سنتی شهر مشهد فضاهای نیمه‌باز نقش مهمی در بروز شیوه زندگی و نظام‌های رفتاری ساکنان ایفا می‌کرده است و امروزه باید بخشی از تلاش معماران و برنامه‌ریزان شهری به‌منظور حفظ هویت و پایداری فرهنگی جامعه معطوف به ایجاد راهکارهایی در راستای حفظ شیوه زندگی بومی و نظام‌های رفتاری حاصل از آن باشد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analytical Comparison of Residential Semi-open Areas on the Formation of Lifestyle and Behavioral System of Residents in Traditional Houses and Present Housing, Case Study: Mashhad City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sayed Mahdi Maddahi 1
  • Eleheh Esfandiani Moghaddam 2
  • Leila Abbasi 3
  • Mona Bemani Naeini 4
1 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Department of Architecture and Urbanism, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Khavaran Institute of Higher Education, Mashhad, Iran.
2 M.A. of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Instructor of Khavaran Institute of Higher Education, Mashhad, Iran.
3 M.A. of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Khavaran Institute of Higher Education, Mashhad, Iran.
4 M.A. of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Islamic Azad University of Neishabour Branch, Neishabour, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Most of architecture and culture theorists emphasize on the effect of spatial form on the human lifestyle and behavior because spatial form, shape ,and organization of houses in a neighborhood could protect (support) or disturb the residents’ life. The literature of environmental studies shows that accountability in each environment is related to its designing aspects so that it affects users’ life quality and satisfaction. According to the researchers, human being and his needs are the main factors of designing space and relationship between them, which could be suitable for the better environment in case of correct implementation. Space creators shall appropriately perceive the human behavior in different areas because it strengthens the linkage between human and environment. Today, houses are designed based on western patterns regardless of climate and regional problems, mental and emotional needs of people, the result of which is the turning of the house to the dormitory and lack of mental and environmental comfort in space.
One of the effective spatial organs on the residents’ lifestyle includes residential semi-open spaces. Ruining semi-open spaces has created some changes in human behaviors which are not desired by residents. Residential semi-open spaces not only supply the light of interior spaces and natural conditioning; but also offer an opportunity for more relationship with outdoor space and a place for representing behaviors resulted from lifestyle. In the present study, the perception of physical-spatial features in past and present residential semi-open spaces is investigated, indicating that in traditional houses, there are various semi-open spaces such as the patio, balustrade, and fence with a significant role in lifestyle and behaviors systems. Therefore, the aim of the current study is the comparison of the effect of such features on the desirability of traditional and modern housing.
The research is theoretical-applied and its method is based on a descriptive and analytical method. The mixed method based on three strategies of qualitative method, interpretive-historical method and quantitative method was used. The qualitative studies were used to investigate the current conditions. Since the qualitative study is to figure out the content and nature and cannot be done through difficult and precise quantitative methods, to increase the reliability and validity in this study, all methods of triangulation were used. Different methods of collecting field data such as observation, interview and questionnaire as well as several observers and interviewers were also used, in this regard.
To collect data, questionnaire and to simulate, Ucl depth map were used. All remained houses of study eras (Qajar, Pahlavi and modern) were primarily observed and investigated for sampling and theoretical saturation. The result of that has been categorizing based on typology technique into one side construction, two sides construction (two masses in front of each other), three sides construction and four sides construction in Qajar era, multi-yard and summer houses of Pahlavi era and northern and southern in modern houses. At least one sample of spatial organization view of each sample was analyzed for theoretical saturation. In this study, the models of native houses in Mashhad in Qajar and Pahlavi eras were compared and through obtained data from questionnaire and Ucl depth map software, by logical and deductive reasoning method, the depth, linkage, and relationship of semi-open spaces and finally, the life quality of modern housing were investigated.
The results of the study indicate that spatial value of semi-open spaces is reduced over time and the spatial value of other spaces will be added. The organizational and spatial configuration of modern houses is not compatible with native lifestyle. Analyzing space is a theory and tool for analysis in architecture and urbanization. In traditional houses of Mashhad, semi-open spaces play a pivotal role in the emergence of lifestyle and behavioral systems of residents. The architects and urban planners shall try to maintain the identity and cultural sustainability of society by creating the solutions for maintaining the native lifestyles and behavioral systems of it so that behaviors play a significant role in designing residential spaces.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Semi-open Spaces
  • Mashhad
  • Lifestyle and Behavioral System
  • Native Houses

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