بررسی تعامل اصول معماری مسکونی دوره‌های آل‌مظفر و قاجار شهر یزد از منظر جهت‌گیری با انرژی خورشیدی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه باستان‌شناسی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

2 استادیارگروه ایران‌شناسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

چکیده

یزد یکی از مناطق کشور با اقلیم گرم‌وخشک می‌باشد که تابش خورشید نقش مهمی در شکل‌گیری معماری مسکونی آن داشته است. این مقاله به شیوه تاریخی- تطبیقی به بررسی تعامل اصول معماری مسکونی حاکم بر خانه‌های دو دوره آل‌مظفر و قاجار با انرژی خورشیدی از منظر جهت‌گیری پرداخته است. سؤالات مطرح‌شده عبارت‌اند از: 1. آیا خانه‌های دوره‌های آل‌مظفر و قاجار براساس تعامل با انرژی خورشیدی شکل‌ گرفته‌اند؟ 2. در کدام دوره و به چه ‌دلیل معماری مسکونی تعامل بهتری را با انرژی خورشیدی نشان می‌دهد؟ 3. آیا تعامل بهتر با اقلیم به تناسبات میان حیاط مرکزی و جداره‌ها ارتباط دارد و چگونه تناسبات مذکور باعث این تعامل می‌شوند؟ بدین منظور، مدل سه‌بعدی خانه‌های کریمی (آل‌مظفر) و شکوهی (قاجار)، در محیط نرم‌افزار اکوتکت ساخته شد و داده‌های آب‌وهوایی شهر یزد بر عملیات شبیه‌سازی اعمال شد. سپس مدل‌ها بر نقاله خورشیدی منطبق و روند رفتاری خانه‌ها مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت و در طولانی‌ترین و کوتاه‌ترین روز سال بسط داده شد. نتایج نشان می‌دهد جهت‌گیری مناسب سبب شده هر چهار جبهه، انرژی دریافتی خورشید را در طول سال تقسیم ‌کنند. بخش تابستان‌نشین در ماه‌های گرم دارای سایه‌اندازی مناسب بوده و بخش زمستان‌نشین با دریافت مناسب در ماه‌های سرد، بخشی از انرژی گرمایی را فراهم می‌کند؛ اما این جبهه در خانه شکوهی عملکرد بهتری دارد؛ چرا که با توسعه ابعاد حیاط، مساحت این جداره افزایش یافته و انرژی بیشتری را دریافت می‌کند. همچنین حیاط خانه شکوهی در ماه‌های سرد عملکرد بهتری دارد. افزایش وسعت حیاط امکان ایجاد خرداقلیم را در فضای داخلی خانه فراهم می‌کند که آسایش مناسبی به همراه دارد. لذا می‌توان گفت معماری مسکونی در هر دو دوره در تعامل با انرژی خورشیدی ایجاد شده‌اند؛ اما خانه شکوهی تعامل بهتری را با اقلیم شهر یزد دارد که این امر ارتباط نزدیکی با تناسبات موجود در بنا دارد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Interaction between the Residential Architecture Principles in Muzaffarids and Qajar Eras in Yazd from the Perspective of the Solar Energy Orientations

نویسندگان [English]

  • Muhammad Ibrahim Zare’ei 1
  • Sayed Fazlollah Mirdehghan Ashkezari 2
1 Professor of Archaeology, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Iranian Studies, Faculty of Humanities, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Yazd is one of the country’s regions with the arid and hot climate in which the solar irradiation plays an important role in the formation of its residential architecture. The present article uses a historical-comparative method to investigate the interaction between the principles of residential architecture’s principles governing the houses during Muzaffarids and Qajar Eras with the solar energy from the perspective of orientation. The questions raised herein are: 1. have the houses been formed based on the interaction with solar energy during Muzaffarids and Qajar Eras? 2. In which period of time and for what reasons the residential architecture shows a better interaction with the solar energy? 3. Is the better interaction with climate associated with the proportions between the central yard and the walls and how the aforementioned proportions cause such an interaction? To do this research, 3D models were constructed for Karimi House (Muzaffarids) and Shokuhi House (Qajar) in the environment of ECOTECT Software and the climatic data of Yazd were utilized in simulation operation. Then, the models were analyzed based on a corresponding solar protractor and the behavioral trends of the houses; they were subsequently expanded to the longest and shortest days of the year. The results indicate that the proper orientation has caused the apportionment of solar energy during the entire year between all the four fronts. The summerside parts have favorable shades during the hot months of the year and the winterside parts provide part of the thermal energy through receiving a good deal of light during the cold months of the year; but, this front was found having a better performance in Shokuhi house because the development in the dimensions of the yard causes an increase in the area of this wall enabling it to receive more energy. Moreover, the yard in Shokuhi House has a better performance during the cold months. The increase in the yard’s vastness gives the possibility of creating microclimate in the interior spaces of the house and this is accompanied by pleasant comfort. Thus, it can be stated that the residential architecture of both periods has been created subject to the interaction with the solar energy but Shokuhi House has better interaction with the climate in Yazd and this is closely associated with the present proportions in the building.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Residential Architecture
  • Solar energy
  • Yazd Region
  • Muzaffarids Era
  • Qajar Era

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