نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 پژوهشگر دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.
2 دانشیار شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Urban planning and design evolutions in United States of America are coherently related to its special characteristics including federalism, private land ownership, liberal economies, dominance of car and sub urbanism, various social and political movements etc. In United States of America, state and local governments generally are responsible for public and welfare services and local planning plays as an essential tool in supporting people needs and requirements. There is strongly held belief in participation of all effective forces in the process of development limitation to authority in the decision taking is the most important characteristics of American urban planning and design systems so plans and regulation enactments have their legal process which official and chosen legislative organization like responsible councils do it. Local governmental administration of urban planning and design is responsible for regulation implementation.The title of responsible administrative organization may be different in each states from another and there are different patterns for managing cities in American urban management system. After tending to qualitative subjects and methods in American urban planning and design system, many positive and negative changes have happened in the land use and zoning regulation systems. This paper puts urban planning and design system of New York City under consideration. New York is one of the most important cities of United States of America and has a hexalayer urban planning and design system which each layer supports another one. A world city which different councils and related committees have key roles in it. Specific urban planning tools besides flexibility in programs, Plans and regulations comply urban planning duties.