نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 پژوهشگر دوره دکتری شهرسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
2 دانشجوی دوره دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، تبریز، ایران.
3 کارشناسی ارشد شهرسازی، دانشکده مهندسی معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The final goal in the development of city neighborhoods is a sustainable development. Some of the indicators related to the neighborhood sustainability are indicators of new urbanism approach can be mentioned. Following the compilation of an appropriate theoretical framework, this research attempts to analyze the component factors of New Urbanism in the neighborhood of Babolsar’s coastal township through the factor analysis, to explain the condition of this neighborhood in the relation with these factors, to rank these factors based on their importance in the explanation of New Urbanism in the neighborhood plan and finally to suggest the priorities of the intervention in this neighborhood in the direction of New Urbanism development though the multivariate regression model. New Urbanism was formalized in the late 1980s as an alternative response to sprawl. The theories of New Urbanism attempt to reconnect the physically designed environment with the social environment through standard design such as street patterns that connect residential dwellings with commercial uses and to allow one to easily access various elements of the neighborhood. In other words, these theories provide a choice among the sprawl dominated landscape to developers, to home buyers, as well as to urban planners. New Urbanism attempts to reintegrate traditional elements of neighborhoods with contemporary neighborhoods. The mixing of traditional and contemporary planning philosophies occurs when structured street patterns are preferred over cul-du-sacs and when pedestrian as well as the automobile or other modes of transportation are integrated into the neighborhood design rather than isolated, thus encouraging connectivity rather than isolation, and sustainability rather than environmental degradation. It has been less discussed to use to this approach for the presentation of an appropriate analysis method for the measuring of new urbanism in the neighborhoods and for the presentation of interfering strategies. This goal-based and practical aimed study presents a method for achieving the sustainability development of the neighborhoods. To do so, the neighborhood of Babolsar’s coastal township was considered as the sample case. This neighborhood is located in the northwest of Babolsar city and characteristics of this neighborhood are as follows: being near to the coast of sea, different types of dwelling, mixed land uses, different ethnic groups and people with average and high income level. To investigate the New Urbanism in this neighborhood through 22 variables and through the factor analysis, 7 explaining factors of New Urbanism were identified: access to the public services in the neighborhood scale, focusing on walking, condition of the traffic in the neighborhood, residential and cultural variety, condition of the public transportation, attachment to the neighborhood, cooperation and mixed use; and then the degree of these factors and the total point were specified in each neighborhood units of this neighborhood. In the next step of the study, throughregression analysis these factors were ranked based on their importance in explaining the dependent variable, neighborhood’s degree of score from the new urbanism. According to the results, sense of place in neighborhood and participation had the most effect in explaining the dependent variable. Then, the priority of intervention in the indicators was specified in the three neighborhood units and the priority of these units emphasized (firstthe lack of interest in self-managing among the people of the neighborhood and then thenearness of the most service stores to the public transportation stations). Considering what were mentioned above, at the first steps of intervention, strategies of developing interactions between the urban management and people, paying attention to the role of town council, and establishing an easy and fast connection between the most service stores and public transportation stations should be considered. In this direction, through the policies of encouragement, the grounds related to the attraction of the cooperation of the temporary population should be considered. To boost the inclination of the permanent population to the self-managing of the neighborhood, the general strategy of the decentralization from the governmental organizations and the transfer of the authorities mostly to the local institutions such as neighborhood councils in issues like executing the plans, supervising the presentation of the urban services, attracting and justifying the people’s satisfaction and informing the people of the activities of the municipality can be useful. Furthermore, in the local planning of the new use, the issues such as paying attention to the policies for making special paths for the walkers and bicycles between the stores and the public transportation stations, making public transportation stations in the path near the coast and in appropriate distance from the activity centers and paying attention to the standards of mixed use have been recommended.