نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشیار طراحی شهری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.
2 کارشناس ارشد برنامه ریزی شهری و منطقه ای، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران. کارشناس شهرسازی شهرداری کلانشهر تبریز، تبریز، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Walking is the oldest way of human and natural right of urban space users especially in the neighborhood scale. After industrial revolution and advent of technology, “walking” lost its importance in the everyday activities of humankind. This tendency, in turn, resulted in decrease of physical interaction of people and consequently the quality of physical environment. The cities were filled with cars and noises. Accordingly, air and noise pollution was increased and the citizens were confronting with reduction in safety, security, physical health as well as social interactions. Simultaneously with this condition, the life quality and residential satisfactory were declined. While at the same time the cities are seeking for improvement of the environmental and life quality, reduction of fossil fuel consumption, improvement of physical and mental health of human, increase of social mutual relations and humanizing urban spaces, further approaches for formation of neighborhoods and pedestrian-oriented cities seem inevitable. Definition of the walk-able neighborhood extends beyond pedestrian concerns, as the ability to walk in a neighborhood indicates not only a type of mobility and means of travel, but also a type of sociability between neighbors. These trends together with each other likely affect the physical, mental, and spiritual health of people in the community. That is to say, measuring the pedestrian-orientation capacity of neighborhood can be considered as one of the principle components of desirable and satisfied environments. As well recognized, the mentioned factors can be assumed as the pre-requisite condition for residential satisfactory. What is the specific objective of current research is to understand the effective elements on neighborhood walk-ability from the viewpoint of residents and the rate of its effect on their residential satisfaction level, so that in this way their capacities and weak points are realized. Therefore, the possibility will be increased for more conscious programming for improving the quality of city and increase in the residential satisfaction while cognition of the existing quality. In this way, the objective of the current research is to detect effective elements via measuring walking frequency during the weak and during of walking (quantitative aspects) and its pleasantness (qualitative aspect) as components for measuring walk-ability of neighborhood and to investigate their relation with individual and environmental specifications (independent variable). In the next step, the relation of walk-ability capacity with residential satisfaction is investigated. Comprehension of these relations has been performed by survey using a questionnaire filled by residents of a neighborhood. During these studies, individual and environmental specifications were investigated from the viewpoint of 200 residents of Chizar neighborhood. Investigation and excavation of effective indicators were performed by use of correlation tests, Factorial analysis and multi-variable linear regression. In this study, the relationship between the frequency, duration and desirability of walking with the residential satisfaction in the neighborhood of residents have been studied. The overall deduction with regard to the analysis of the research hypothesis shows that despite the suitability of frequency of inhabitants’ weekly walk (3.46 times), they experience a lower desirability for walking. The obtained results reveal that the average duration of their walking time is 30 minutes per time which certainly cannot be done except to walk as a mandatory activity. The main results indicate that there is no significant relationship between the frequency of walking in the neighborhood and the residential satisfaction. In other words, the number of presence in the neighborhood is not necessarily related to the quality of environment and residential satisfaction of residents. Therefore, the frequency of walking of the people is certainly mandatory and it is not because of the perception of people about the quality of the environment and residential satisfaction. On the other hand, there is a direct relationship between ‘satisfaction’ and ‘duration of walking’ in the neighborhood, regardless of the reason of walking (whether it is mandatory or optional). Therefore, it can be concluded that programming and providing strategies for increasing walking pleasantness lead to higher levels of residential satisfaction. Further development and use of the questionnaire and analyses of the gathered data from the instrument can help clarify what factors contribute to the resident satisfaction, if there are common factors, and if the factors have a theoretical order based on importance. This would contribute to the development of a theory of residential satisfaction. Demographic differences as well as similarities should also be explored in future research on walk-ability of neighborhood and residential satisfaction. Variables as age, gender, physical and mental abilities, and socio-economic levels need to be understood in relationship between neighborhood walkability and residential satisfaction.