نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران.
2 استاد طراحی و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکده شهرسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
3 استاد معماری، دانشکده معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
This paper tries to explain the role of hills in the spatial organization of hilly cities and further explain the spatial & natural capacities of these elements as public places in Sanandaj city. In this study, a phenomenological and qualify research method is used to focus on hills and processes affecting the sociability of the spatial domains including hilltop, hillside and hill depth. In this paper, data collection is done through theoretical and historical literature review and field observation. The results along with The interpretation, logical and graphical analysis, deal with the meaning and the public performance of the hills in Sanandaj. The theoretical frame work of the paper proceeds in four parts: the first part deals with the different aspects and various functions of public spaces; accordingly, a great and attractive public place is a framework for the display of public power and social interaction. It contains at least the three features of public access, public property and public functions. In the second part, the effective processes in reinforcing or reducing the public function and common meaning of hills are considered. It is concluded that different processes like the narratives, structural, developmental and political - economic processes should reach a determined level of compatibility to benefit the social processes(common cultural norms, human interactions, and sociability). The third section has reviewed the historical function of the hills in three models of the city (cosmological, mechanical and the organic model) and showed that the spatial organization of the hills is often influenced by the cosmic and the mechanical model over history. This resulted in their privatization by power institutions such as government, religion and market. Hence, hills can answer a wider range of people’s beliefs, needs and behaviors when to handle the central idea of the organic model, which is the protection of environment, history and culture. In the fourth section of the theoretical frameworks, with the help of phenomenological interpretations, at least three other necessities are explained. First, the inherent character that separates hills from other spatial elements is their public character, which means it is necessary for these natural elements. It should be always present in arguments and concerns of the public sphere. Second, due to the height of hills compared to other places, the people’s visual and intellectual occupation of the entire city or some of its parts is always possible, so these perspectives make it to become a public possibility and common engagement. Third, the spatial perception of people in hilly settlements is fundamentally different from the plain settlements. This issue can explain the relationship between the inside and outside as the main different and especial urban dialogue for hills, in hilly cities. Having outlined the theoretical frame work, the three process which define and reinforce the public meaning and the common functioning of the Sanandaj hills are investigated. History and field studies indicate that much of spatial actions have reduced or eliminated the public function of hills over the development history of Sanandaj. Therefore it is necessary to strengthen the social processes (religious and nonreligious narratives attributed to the hills) and the political- economic processes (occupation of top of hills by the institutions of power) on the one hand and to control development processes (large-scale excavation and leveling hills and private construction on top of them) on the other hand. The applied methods of hills in Sanandaj imply that the cosmological models and the mechanical models dominating the spatial organization and their functions are not often compatible with the organic model. This study analyses show that hills are considered as special characters and capital of Sanandaj and any decision regarding their spatial organization should be made based on their public use. Due to the natural capacities, meanings, relevant narratives, and physical and mental meanings of these places, findings can define and strengthen publics functions in order to remove private functions and control the effective processes within the top and the upper range of hills to respond to the public needs in Sanandaj. It can be predicted that organization of hills as sociable public spaces can promote economic dimensions (property values surrounding hills), human health (physical and mental), social - spatial dimensions (social integration, local values environment), environmental dimensions (natural environment and away from the bustle of city) and visual - perception dimensions (attractive and beautiful sights with various landscapes) in part of public domain of Sanandaj. Therefore, it is suggested that urban design and landscape design projects of hills under the name of “The Project for Sanandaj Public Hills”, can be the agenda for an institution with a cooperative framework and an interface between the government and the people.Therefore it can be concluded that “the hills are connected with the past, the nature, and the social life of people in Sanandaj” and “the privatization of the top of the hill by the institutions of power should be stopped”.