Investigating the Spatial Organization and Structure of Iranian Cities till Mid Qajar Era and Presenting Pattern of Traditional Structure of Cities in This Era

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Art & Architecture, College of Architectur, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Lecturer at Islamic Azad University, Parand Branch, Department of Art and Architecture, College of Architectur, Tehran, Iran.

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Spatial Organization and Structure of Iranian Cities till Mid Qajar Era and Presenting Pattern of Traditional Structure of Cities in This Era

نویسندگان [English]

  • Lida Balilan Asl 1
  • Maryam Nouri 2
  • Dariyush Sattarzadeh 1
چکیده [English]

Iranian traditional cities were created with a system based on experiments and gradual establishment of society through time. Qajar era is especially important in Iranian art history. Until mid Qajar era, Iranian cities’s architecture mainly took benefit of its common traditional architecture that is already seen in most desert-surrounding cities. Till this era, there was not any connection between Qajar and western architecture and it rooted in principles of Iranian urban planning and architecture that were indicating traditional properties of the country formed as traditional cities structures. Later by entering of modernity thoughts during reign of Nasir al-Din Shah, several variations were seen at spatial organization of Iranian cities including Tehran and Tabriz. Identifying these variations requires profound recognition of traditional structure of Iranian cities during Qajar era to the mentioned time juncture to clarify the fact that how our cities have passed from the traditional to modern stage. Therefore, the main object of this study is investigation of the spatial organization and structure of Iranian cities during Qajar era and, finally, presenting pattern of traditional structure before entering modernity to Iran. The results show that there is not any main difference between spatial organization and structure of Iranian cities until mid Qajar and Ṣafavid eras. Architectural figure of most spaces are in direct relationship with their functional content and social concept and urban and work spaces are intensively merged, and organization of urban spaces is still based on main bazaar axis of the city and governmental citadel area. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Spatial Organization and Structure
  • City
  • Iran
  • Qajar Era
  • pattern
Afsar, K.A. (1974). Old Contexture History of Shiraz, National Monument Association, Shiraz.
Afshar Asl, M. & Khosravi M.B. (1998). Iran Architecture in Qajar Time, Honar Journal, Art Research and Studies Center, Tehran, (36), 122-137.
Ahlers, E. (1994). Islamic East City; Model and Reality, Translated By Momeni M. & Zia M.H., Journal of Geography Research, 9(1), 166-187.
Ahmadi Disfani,Y. & Aliabadi, M. (2012). Traditional City Structures from Perspective of Islamic Notions, The Scientific Journal of Nazar Research Center, for Art, Architecture & Urbanism, Article 2, 8(19), Winter. Albums of Golestan Palace, Golestan Palace, Tehran.
Ali Babaei, Gh.R. (2005). Political Culture of Arash, Ashian Press, Tehran.
 Alizadeh, H. & Habibi, K. (2011). Shaping Factors of Historical- Islamic Cities of Moslems, Journal of Islamic Cities Studies, (3), 72-83.
 Alsayyad, N. (1996). The Study of Islamic Urbanism:a historiographic Essay, Built Environment, 22(2), 91-97.
Balilan Asl, L. (2008). The Role of Interim Spaces (Inbetween Spaces) in Spatial Organization of Architectural and Urban Design Elements In Iran, PhD Thesis, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Science and Research Branch,145.
Balilan Asl, L. (2009). Study of the Effect of
 Roads on City Structure of Tabriz in Qajar Time, Journal of Geography and Planning, 14(29), 35-60. Barzegar, M. (2003), Urban Design & Main Construction of City, Koshamehr, Shiraz.
Biglari, H. (1995). History of Kermanshah in Qajar Era, Tagh Bostan Press, Kermanshah. Brar, V. (1977). Iranian Revolutions, (Dehshiri S.Z, Ed. And Trans), University of Tehran Press, Tehran. Connell, Sh. (1981). Theories for Planning, London: Heinemann, 68. Danesh, J. (2010). Formation Basics and Structural Organization Principals of Islamic city, Journal of Studies of Islamic Iranian City, (1)1. Daz Consultig Engineering (1974).
Plan of Kerman, Department of Housing & Urban Development, Tehran. Department of Education (2003). Yazd Cultural Heritage Landscape, Publishing and Cultural Production, 2nd Edition, Winter. Etemad Alsaltaneh, M. H. Kh. (1983). Matla’ Alshams, Golshan, 1nd Edition, Tehran.
Fakhari Tehrani, F., Parsi, F. & Bani Masoud, A. (2006). Read Out The History Maps of Tabriz, Tarsim Press, Urban Improvement & Construction Company of Iran, Tehran.
Falamaki, M. (1995). Reconstruction of Monuments and Historical Cities, 3th Edition, Tehran: Tehran University.
Falamaki, M. (2005). Urban Repair Experiences from Venice to Shiraz, Faza Press, 2th Edition, Tehran. Ghazi Tabatabaei, H. (1974). Azarbayjan Erudition Family in Era Qajar, Journal of Chehre Azar Abadegan, 2, 141-145.
Ghobadian, V. (2005). Architecture at Dar Alkhalafe Naseri, Tradition and Modernity in Contemporary Architecture of Tehran, 1th Edition, Pashutan Press.
Golabzadeh, M. (1995). Proceeding of the Second Seminar of Kerman, Structure and Spatial Organization of Kerman Traditional Cities, Porahmad: Kermanshenasi Center.
Ibn Balkhi. (1995). Farsnameh, Foundation for Fars Studies Publication, Shiraz. Jihad of Tehran University Faculty of Fine Arts (1988). Instauration Plan of Old Kerman, Ministry of Interior.
Labbaf khaniki, R. (1999). Features of Khorasan Cultural Heritage, Cultural Heritage Organization. Lachini, A. (1947). Council and Manuscripts of Abasmirza Regent, Tehran.
Afshari. Mahryar, M. Fath allah, Y., Ghadiri, B. & Fakhari, F. (1995). Pictorical Documentation Refrences of Iranian Cities in Qajar Era, Beheshti University, Tehran.
Mahryar, M. Fath allah, Y., Ghadiri, B. & Fakhari, F. (1996). Document of Iranian Cities in Qajar Era, Journal of Soffeh, ( 21-22), 64-99.
 Mansouri, S.A. (2007). Two Period of Spatial Organization of Iranian Cities Before & After Islam Use of Kerman Evolution Evidence, Journal of Nazar Research Center, (7), 49-60.
Moghtader, R. (1999). Construction and Renovation in Qajar Era, Letter of Iran Magazine, (67), 469-488.
Motamedi, M. (2002). Historical Geography of Tehran, Tehran, Center for Academic Publishing. Pakdaman, B. (1997). Preface of Architectural Style and Trends at Tehran, Proceedings of the International Congress of Iranian Architectural History.
Rahmati, E. (2008). Traditionalism and Barriers to Understanding, Journal of Knowledge and Wisdom Information. Rajabi, P. (1976), Iran Architecture in Pahlavi Era, Tehran, National University Press, 1th Edition.
Ramezan Jamaat, M. & Neyestani, J. (2010). Flaunt of Tradition and Modernity of Tehran Homes Input Spaces in Qajar Era, Journal of Fine Arts, (44), 65-75.
Riazi, S.A. (2010). Modernity Effect on Spatial Organization of Tehran City in Late of Qajar Era, Journal of Cultural Research, (3), 129-148.
Roshe, G. (2000). Social Action, (Zanjanizadeh, H. Trans), Ferdowsi University, Mashhad. Safamanesh, K. (2005). Development of Public and Private Spaces in Iran Early Modernity, Journal of Andishe Iranshahr, 3, 26-36.
Seifi Tafreshi, M. (1990). Tehran at the Time, Eghbal Press, 26, 62-107.
 Soltanzadeh, H. (2011). A Brief History of City and Urban in Iran from Encient to 1976, 1th Edition, Chartagh Press.
Soorin, V. & Tankard J. (2007). Theories of Communications, Dehghan, A., Tehran, Tehran University Press, 65.
Tabatabaei, S. J. (2006). Tabriz School and Principals of Modernization, Stoodeh Press, Tabriz. Tavassoli, M. , Peyvand Nu, (2002), Urban and Architecture in Hot and Dry Climate of Iran, 1th Edition. Tehrani, F. , beka, Sh. (2009). Presented and Analysis: The First Map of Tehran, Journal of Art Golestan, 15, 45-52.
Vahabzadeh, A. (1996). History of Tabriz Battlement, Proceedings of the International Congress of Iranian Architectural History, Cultural Heritage Organization.
Zaka, Y. (1970). The History of Tehran Royal Citadel Buildings and Golestan Palace Guide, National Monument Association Press.
 Zareie, M.E. (2009). Development of Sanandaj City in Qajar & Safavi Era in View of Archaeological Studies, Thesis of “Archaeology- Islamic Era”, Tehran University.
Zendedel, H. (1998). Series of Comprehensive Guide Touring of Zanjan Province, Iranian Tour Press.