نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 مربی، عضو هیأت علمی گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه بجنورد، بجنورد، ایران.
2 مربی، عضو هیأت علمی گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه بجنورد، بجنورد، ایران .
عنوان مقاله [English]
Religion has played the most important role in individual and social life of human beings in all of pre-modern (contemporary) periods. Religious buildings always were known as the most important and valuable works of architecture in every civilization. During the modern era, architecture of mosques just like other buildings got great changes. The importance of the mosque and its transformation in the contemporary architecture, has become the concern of many architecture researchers. The subject of researches in this field, have been further explanation of the theoretical and conceptual issues, or physical descriptions of religious buildings rather than the mentality and subjective image of the people about the form of mosques. In the present study, subjective assumptions of the Bojnord people about favorable image of today’s mosque is examined. The questions of this study were as follows: 1) is there any significant difference between the opinions of different groups of people on ideal mosque? 2) Whether the existence and shape of the dome in a mosque, from public viewpoint, effect on the success of mosque? 3) How far the architecture of Bojnord contemporary mosques is successful and attractive, from the city peoples’ viewpoint? The hypotheses based on the questions, have shaped as follows:
1) The public opinion on “the success rate of the Bojnord contemporary mosques” is significantly different in: a) different sex groups; b) different academic fields and different levels of education; c) different age groups. 2) People opinions about “the success rate of the mosques” is significantly related to their opinions about “the ideal shape of the dome”. This study was a descriptive survey and the tool in data gathering. To ensure the validity of the questionnaire, the ideas and comments of experts and professors have been served. The questionnaire reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha. Review, analysis and statistical inference of the replies, are done using SPSS17 software. The population includes all people living in Bojnord. The sample size was estimated 370, according to Morgan and Cochran formulas, 95% confidence level and margin of error of 5%. 311 questionnaires returned after distribution. The questionnaires has been distributed, as much as possible, in public places (such as markets, mosques, universities, offices, etc.) that includes all age groups, educational and ethnic as well as different points in the city; to ensure uniform distribution of the sample. The research results showed that: 1) most of respondents have a neighborhood scale subjective image, and a great mosque in an urban scale has been considered relatively less. The majority of respondents believe that there is a optimal distance between the mosque and the places of work and live, a maximum of 10 minutes’ walk. 2) Most people believe that ideal mosque would be “great and glorious” and the entrance of mosque had to be “taller than the adjacent buildings”; the prayer hall of mosque should have a height of “medium” or “high” and the ceiling should be “domed”. Most people, believe that a prayer hall with a “less columns (and by far)” is ideal, but the optimal diameter of the pillars of the prayer hall, according to the responses, cannot lead to a result. Also most of respondents believe that “usual and average” number and size of windows in the main prayer hall is better. 3) About the height of the dome, from the viewpoint of most respondents, a dome with a height of “medium” or “high” is ideal. Also, nearly half of respondents believe that the dome of mosques should still be built “like traditional domes”. Other respondents also believe that the domes had to be “in imitation of the traditional domes, but different”. Also most of respondents believe that “high” or “medium” minaret are ideal for a mosque. 4) “Courtyard (Sahn)”, “Dome” and “Minaret” have the most important elements of mosque, and “Garden”, “Pulpit” and “fountain” has been considered as the least important. More respondents believe that the success rate of Bojnord contemporary mosques were average, low, or very low. 5) Regarding to their opinions about “the success rate of contemporary mosques of Bojnord”, no significant difference was seen among two “sex groups”, (men and women), among “different academic disciplines groups” and among the “different age groups”. Also a significant weak relationship was seen between the opinions about “success rate of mosques” and “education level”. A significant relationship was seen between the opinions about “success rate of mosques” and the opinions about “ideal form of dome”.