نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دکتری معماری، دانشیار وزارت علوم، تحقیقات و فناوری، تهران، ایران .
2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه علم و فرهنگ، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
By passing time and changing human’s life style, green spaces and nature are still considered as inseparable elements of human’s life, which have played an effective and necessary role in their lives. The aim of this study is examining these necessary elements. The first step is studying the impact of green spaces in the human lives and the result determines that green spaces are really effective while the effects include: psychological effects, cultural effects and sociology effects. The psychological effects consist of mental and emotional, physical and aesthetic impacts. In addition to spiritual, psychological and relaxing effects of being in nature or green spaces, Peterborough Gary, scientifically pointed an issue called “fitoneseid”. Trees such as walnut and pine release this substance into the atmosphere, which can make people happier while it is able to keep the two sides of the brain in a balance and make it calm and relaxed. In addition to pointed factors, the impact of colours of places on the users cannot be ignored. The colours are able to effect
on human’s emotions and their different cognitive aspects. Red colour probably attracts much more attention than other colours so it makes people feel more activate, while green colour probably attracts less attention and can keep people calm and relaxed. About the physical effects of colours, there is an explanation: People who are working in industrial
societies do exercise much less than others. Therefore for increasing physical activities, it is necessary to encourage people to exercise more. Attractive places, such as green spaces can encourage people to take part in these useful activities. For example, “Rajer Olrikh” based on a research on psychological effects of trees and green spaces on the patients’ recovery period at hospitals has realized that it is impossible to shorten the period of hospitalization by using the impact of green spaces. In the relation between those items, studies have presented that living in nature and natural spaces can create a positive impact on human’s cardiovascular function and decrease the stresses while being in nature will decrease the heart rate and make the body tissues relax, reduce blood pressure and increase the electrical conductivity of skin. Also, sociology and cultural effects lead to improve the social interaction and social relations of people living in residential complexes. This part requires a short explanation:
Green spaces prepare the sense of social spaces and let people learn from each other, also let them show their personal and social talents and improve their spiritual aspects. Totally the green spaces prepare an atmosphere for the users to feel freedom and independence, while it is not provided at home or at office. Green spaces bring the natural
environment into the urban environment and are able to change the harsh and artificial context of the city to a relaxing and pleasure atmosphere. Green spaces make a deep relation between people of society and natural environment, therefore make the city more habitable and more tolerable, which are basic factors for a sustainable society. In this
article two samples of high residential complexes in Tehran are going to be studied, such as: Ekbatan residential complex and Navvab residential complex. Because of increasing the amount of buildings in this years and the lack of paying attention to human’s needs in high residential buildings and the effect of it on the user’s life quality and the importance of caring about residence’s spiritual needs, the green spaces must be considered more than before. Analyzing the satisfaction of these two building users with different amount of green spaces expresses:
- There is a relation between increasing the amount of green spaces and satisfaction of people living in residential complexes.
- Due to the style of group life or collective life in residential complexes, the green space is considered as an important element in increasing the social interaction and connection
between the residences in this residential buildings.
- Not also the green spaces positively effect on human’s spiritual aspects, but also they effect on their life-styles and behaviours, so the life quality and people satisfaction will increase.
- The index of satisfaction of green spaces impact in Ekbatan residential complex is more than Navvab residential complex. It means that in the last years, people in these built and designed complexes have paid less attention to green spaces which can be an inseparable part of human lives.