نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران.
2 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
All of the studies which focused on the relationship between humans and the environment, state that both of them influence on each other. Sometimes these affects are physical, functional, cognitive, or sensitive. These subjects are the topics for many studies. For example way finding problems in space led researchers to evaluate the spaces in order to improve wayfinding performance. Some of these methods are objective which surveying the fabric of physical environment, and the others are subjective, which discuss one’s mind (cognition and emotion) in wayfinding. Because of the difficulty of obtaining the sensitive data, few studies have fallowed this topic. In this field, there are some good basic theories that could be useful for researchers. According to the one of most useful theories which is used in many environment studies, there is a spectrum of similar words which totally shape personal sensation in each place. These words are used to express person’s emotions in the environment and also the interaction between them. So, there are many different terms to express emotions. Similarities and differences between them are considerable. A good performance in the environment needs optimal values of the emotional factors. Literatures state that in the field of emotion studies any words to describe places can be defined by two dimensions, “arousal” and “pleasure”, in a circular model. In order to create and maintain a good sense of place, the hypotheses are allocated to show that how an optimal range of values for emotional variables create. Because of the limitation for random sampling, in this study method of quasi-experimental research is used and the case study of Shiraz traditional bazaar has been tested by asking the participants to participate in paper- pencil tests. The research involves several steps: after a short introduction, based on the research literature, the research questions are stated. Then defines the key words and describes the topic being discussed: First, by non-random sampling, samples are collected from architecture students. 30 students spend about 2 hours in the bazaar’s environment. After 1 hour way finding and exploration in all of the bazaar’s paths using a list of bazaar’s paths names, they asked to draw a mental map of the bazaar by drawing and naming its nodes and paths. After data collection, by those drawn maps, a map of the bazaar’s known nodes and paths is drawn. This map is used as a basis for the evaluations. Secondly, with the help of “Space Syntax” theory, by means of its software (depth map) analysis, axial lines are created for each path. Based on the Similarity which appears in physical environment, bazaar’s paths are divided into 14 groups. In each category of Shiraz traditional bazaar’s axial line, the students are asked to answer the same questionnaires. Based on these questionnaires, the results are extracted from the statistical method. Therefore the amounts of participants’ emotional variables (arousal and pleasure) are measured. Then to use a network of emotion, adopted from Russell et al., the relationship between these two variables is evaluated by means of the correlation method. Afterwards the study states that using the “affect grid” becomes possible. In third step, the bazaar’s paths which are recognized by students are categorized and their positions are determined by the network. After that based on the researchers’ studies a new term, “the optimal positioning range”, is defined and a Geometric method is presented to express this range schematically. After performing this method on the network (affect grid) convex polygons appear, separate the networks and fill all of the two-dimensional emotional spaces which have positive pleasure. All these steps perform to determine the appropriate values for “arousal” and “pleasure” in each bazaar’s path, in order to create and maintain a good sense of place. After all priority areas are addressed to help improve the emotional conditions. According to this paper 4 priority areas are defined. Their definitions are closely associated with the proximity to the convex polygons cores.
By means of this kind of evaluation on a system (A set of functional spaces), it will be clear that each path (axial line) is in which emotional position toward its function, emotionally. So this evaluation can show if it is in a good emotional condition or not. Finally, it should be stated that factors that makes the results of this study different from the others are considering the complex (bazaar) as a system, also introducing a schematic emotional way to show the allowable range of values, and determining operational priorities to improve the emotional state of the whole system.