نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 Professor of Economic Development and Regional Planning, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Ph.D. Candidate of Urban and Regional Planning, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Environmental Science Research Institute, University of Shahid Beheshti, Tehran, Iran.
عنوان مقاله [English]
By the beginning of the third millennium, environment has become an issue of global
importance. Changes arising from globalization has led to the formation of concerns that have inevitably
been effective in the field of urban planning /design. New paradigms pertaining to urban policies have
become pervasive all over the world, ignorant of the country’s local context. Lack of attention to
contextual compliance underlying some of these paradigms have caused extremes in some cases that
intensifies local-global dualities. This is especially evident in developing countries: there are occasionally
some proposals to employ international architectural consulting services with innovative/new approaches
to design or plan for large cities with great local backgrounds. In these circumstances, the adaptability
of international planning/design paradigms to local context is highlighted as a point of concern. In this
research, firstly, ‘contextualism’ is reviewed as a theory underlying urban development. Secondly, three
recent international urban development paradigms: New Urbanism, Urban Villages and Urban Renaissance
and the adaptability of their proposed solutions to urban context will be analyzed. An analytical method
for comparative research is used to describe the main ideas of research. In each section, with an overview
of the most important related literature, a multi-step process and logical reasoning, the strategies of
each paradigm are compared within a model (multiple dimensions of urban design). To compare the
adaptability of strategies to the context, ‘contextualism’ conceptual framework has been utilized. It is
concluded that each paradigm has more emphasis on a specific dimension of contextualism which traces
back to specific economic, political, cultural, etc. Circumstances from which that paradigm has been
originated. Thus, when applying an international planning/design paradigm to a new environment, it will
bring about practical changes only if it is calibrated to the local area’s context initially.