نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 عضو هیات علمی )مربی(، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، موسسه آموزش عالی دانش پژوهان، اصفهان، ایران.
2 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
3 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the most important needs of the community is education of the people who rely on their willpower and intellection. One of the characteristics of human beings that can be influential for individual progress in community is creativity. Because childhood is the best and most important period to train and develop human talents, it is important to know how to foster children’s creativity, as a human need in all aspects of their future life. By studying the previous researches in the context of creativity, it is found that among the multiple factors affecting the children’s creativity, more attention was paid to the teaching methods in educational environments, training issues in the house and school, and different aspects of child growth. As well, in recent years, some studies were done on the designing of educational environments for developing children’s creativity. What has rarely been favored and noted in those researches is the effect of housing space quality on discovering and developing of children’s creativity. Many theories of creativity have focused on the influence of the family on the creativity and innovation of their children. Since the context of the child’s relationship with family members happens in the house, this research offers few design pattern of housing to enhance children’s creativity. This
quantitative and qualitative research used direct methods such as interview and observation and indirect methods such as library studies to collect information. Researches show that creativity can be strong or weak and also decreasing and fertilizing creativity is more possible in childhood. The results from this study can be categorized in two sections: the first section showed some factors that influence creativity in children as following: independency, flexibility, Risk taking, perseverance, high curiosity, tolerance of ambiguity, Humor, initiative, Fantasy, aesthetician, Skepticism, Sensitivity and attention, interest to complex works, relationship with parents, play and participation. The studies shows that some factors are directly related to the personal characteristic of the creative person. Accordingly, from the effective factors of creativity, four of them were selected which are: as fantasy, curiosity, play and participation. The results showed that:
- Curiosity is the foundation of creativity.
- Fantasy is the most important factor in developing creativity.
- The best activity to promote creativity in children and encourage their creative and novel thoughts is playing.
- Information is the crude material for the creativity.
- As long as a human has not run into a problem and his/her life passes on habits or based on bypassing the problems, there would be no creativity.
- Participation of family members, team work and their sympathy arise the creativity.
In the second section, the suggestions for designing based on these factors are expressed:
- The result showed that the possibility of direct experience of nature can enhance curiosity, imagination, and corporation, so it could be concluded that nature can directly increase the creativity.
- Designing changeable space and using movable walls or furniture cause better group work and could effect on creativity.
- Designing some places regarding to children scale would be beneficial for their creativity.
- the playful environment enables children to take part in learning within a framework of creation, exploration, narration, imagination, collaboration and play.
- The presence of collaborative activities is a significant feature of a creative environment and children’s creativity is closely related to opportunity for working collaboratively with their parents. So, the results show that spaces designed using nature, for encouraging family to meet each other and corner design in house (cozy space) can be helpful for enhancing creativity. Moreover, findings about the places which are provide the family members to
participate shows that:
• The aforementioned room is at the center of the house, it is a place where most of the people are passed through it. The observations showed if this room is related to the kitchen area it would have a better efficiency.
• This placed is a cross- cut way that connects the entry (door) to the other places of house. It is necessary and better for this place not to be a closed while its connection to
the open space can promote its efficiency.
• There should be placed some appropriate objects and components (For example a place to eat food, since eating food is one of the most important and basic affairs to get
together or some armchairs to sit).
About the corner space, in designing, the upright, straight, uniform and rigid walls can be disregarded and for them the corners with different various forms (different shapes, levels and with different applications) can be planned.