نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.
2 کارشناسی ارشد شهرسازی، دانشگاه تکنولوژی وین، وین، اتریش.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Discussing the characteristics required in the design of high-rise buildings in Iran has always been a controversial issue. Design of tall buildings in Iran began in 1950s. The first high-rise building was built in Bag-e-Sepahsalar Street in Tehran. During these years, in Mashhad (the second largest city of Iran) a four- story building –Char Tabaghe– was built that was the tallest building in Mashahd back then.
Mashhad, as the second largest city in Iran and one of the most popular cities in the developing Islamic world in recent years has grown vertically. At the last decades of Pahlavi dynasty, the tallest building was a sixteen floors building (Zist e Khavar) that was designed by SOM (it was completed around 1990 after Islamic Revolution). After a hiatus (because of imposed war between Iran & Iraq) in 1980s another kind of high-rise building was built in Mashhad city. In the last two decades, the high-rise building design has taken a different form from the past. In some regions (especially region 9 of Mashhad) high-rise buildings are on the rise. With an AHP model analysis, district 9 of Mashhad is one of the best regions for high-rise building design. The issue of supply and demand was considered in the analysis of the needs assessment. Thus, it must be determined how the current situation affects the cases. Therefore, similar projects, which were constructed or being constructed in District 9, were studied. According to the municipality statistics, 7 high-rise buildings were built or are under construction in this region during 2010 to 2012. Despite the growth, there is(are) no design guidelines to build high-rise so that in future it would lead to an unsuitable condition in urban design of the city. Lack of attention to user s’ needs of these kind of residential buildings creates some problems. This research considers user s’ needs of physical conditions of a high-rise building in Mashhad. In this research, 150 users or those who want to be inhabitants of these kinds of dwellings were asked some questions about physical-special needs of high- rise residential buildings.
Assessing requirements of users shows that in this kind, the users suppose some amenities like: market and shopping mall, green gardens and green spaces, gym, pool sport center and kindergarten. Also, other facilities such as bakery, travel agency, and fruit shop, library, leisure spaces are noted by the audiences. Research shows more than 85% of users prefer 3 or 4 bedrooms, more than a half prefer to live in a duplex apartment. Also, 90% of the users emphasise on importance of green terraces and yards in apartments. Most of them prefer to live in the eighteenth floor and above. Among different typologies, duplex apartment is more appropriate. Green spaces and green yards are very important in a high-rise residential apartment. Separation of pedestrian way from parking is another important note by the users.
Analyzes show that most users living in a tower building are 47-year-old individuals. In other words, the target society or users of such buildings are in the range of 45 to 50years old. Most (35%) of participants prefer to live in higher stories. Results show that as the age of the head of the household increases, the inclination to live in higher stories increases too. (Although the abundance of this age group is not that great). The second most preferred levels are the 1st to 6th floor (with 24%). With regards to the type of the desired apartment, the results show that more than half the participants prefer duplexes (57% of the participants).
On the other hand, individuals who desire triplexes on higher stories, are in the age range of 45 to 53. There is a significant relation and a dependence between the user’s age, the selected floor, and the type of unit. The majority of the participants consider the area under study (district 9 of Mashhad) a suitable place for living, and they prefer to live on the 18th story or above. Duplex apartments were desired more than other types. Having a balcony and a green area is important to 90% of the participants. Separating motorist and pedestrian ways, having a supermarket on the premises, and having a garden or an open space were the subjects of most interest. More requests of the users is for 150 m2 to 250m2 apartment units. Studies show there is a correlation between the age of user, floor number and typology of apartments. Increasing the age, the user chooses upper floors. Also, as the age of household head goes up, tendency to reside in higher level increases.