نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد همدان، همدان، ایران.
2 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد همدان، همدان، ایران.
3 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان، همدان، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The phenomenological approach, which is based on the existence of mankind, studies the presence of mankind in the universe (Dasein) and its relationship with the surrounding world. It also investigates the existing boundaries –as important components of spatial structures– between mankind and the surrounding environment as well as those between different phenomena. By creating enclosure, boundaries change “space” into “place” and they affect the character and landscape of place by developing spatial order. Creation of place and features such as the inside, the outside, boundary, enclosure, realm and path, have led to formation of different structures and subsequently formation of meaningful places. Boundary is a necessary structure and condition for formation of place. This paper will explore the qualities of the relationship between the inside and the outside in general and the notion of boundary in particular. From Heidegger’s point of view, space turns into place by means of the presence of an “object”. The existence of a place creates an inside which in turn gains meaning in contrast to the outer environment. Without this presence, space is just a meaningless and a logical spectrum. However, manifestation of a presence or an object immediately turns space into a place. In this sense, a place is part of the expanse of space, which has gained meaning by a specific presence, be it the shade of a tree in a plain or a path which is distinguishable from its surrounding environment due to its different texture. Every person begins to perceive and understand the surrounding environment from their early days of life and gradually develops the manner of this perception and understanding. For humans, the five senses are the means of understanding the surrounding environment and thus the boundary between mankind and the environment, which divides and connects the two at the same time. The phenomenological approach seeks to understand different phenomena and their relationship as well as the relationship between mankind and the world which encompasses these phenomena. It leads humans to revisit their perceptions and feelings in order to gain a qualitative understanding of the world.
Conducted with a phenomenological approach and based on first-hand field observations with an existential focus, this research seeks to develop a framework for gaining deep and proper understanding of the spatial nature and qualitative features of place. Therefore, the aim is to investigate the role of boundaries in different places (natural and built) and the role of people’s understanding of the structure of these boundaries in their interventions and efforts for improving the quality of built places. Approaching the subject from the viewpoint of understanding the surrounding world and deriving from phenomenological studies, the author attempts to analyze her place of living as a phenomenon, explain it based on her learnings of this approach and distinguish and identify the existing boundaries in this place. For this purpose, first, the literature of place phenomenology, place structure and understanding of place will be reviewed; then, the structure of the author’s habitat (located in Malayer City, Hamadan Province) –a plain that has facilitated formation of vineyards around the city– will be described and explored based on mentioned approach and phenomenological criteria. Then, the relationship between people and natural/built places and the boundaries in these places will be analyzed. Finally, a possible solution for improving the relationship between the three phenomena of mankind, natural place and built place (in this case dried fruits packaging workshops in the region under study) will be proposed. When environmental interventions are accompanied by proper perception and understanding of the surroundings, place becomes a source of peace and security and it can be much more successful in attracting more individuals. People would feel at home and relaxed and the final outcome would be a place formed from its spatial bedrock that can satisfactorily meet the visual, environmental and psychological needs of its visitors. A person’s proper understanding of the structure of the surrounding environment and its boundaries alongside the accurate perception of various sensory elements such as odors, sounds, etc. can help them grasp and recognize the sense of “being at a place” with clarity. The author’s phenomenological attempt for better understanding the area of study and the needs of its residents has led to formation of ideas and suggestions which can help improve the condition of raisin processing factories and workshops in the area in a manner that the employees can easily work and enjoy the surrounding natural environment and landscapes. Implementations of these suggestions can undoubtedly improve the condition of the workforce and the procedure of work in these manufacturing units. Not only will they be able to avoid defacing the natural landscape, but also they can help improve the environment by means of carefully planned interventions and proper use of environmental potentials for the betterment of the mutual relationship between mankind and natural/built places.