Promoting the Sense of Place Attachment through Enplaning the Meaning of Place in the Open Space of Aseman-e-Tabriz Residential Complex

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 Ph.D. Student of Architecture, Department of Art and Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Architecture, Department of Art and Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

3 Associate Professor of Architecture, Department of Art and Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.


In the course of Islam’s history and, especially, Seljuks Era, Iran has always been one of the primary loci of Islamic Art. On the other hand, ottomans have taken long leaps in the area of architecture through being inspired by Iranian and Byzantine Art. Due to Iran and ottoman adjacency as well as their cultural exchanges and the common governmental aspects, the art and architecture of these two territories have borrowed ideas from one another and share similarities. The goal of the present article is the comparative investigation of the architectural indices and elements of the memorial and mortuary buildings constructed during Seleucid Era in Rome and inspired by the mortuary and mosque buildings of Iran. The study theoretical framework is laid on the foundation of the perspective that the past architectural spaces are influenced by the cultural phenomena and the cultural exchanges have played roles in their formation. The present study’s research methodology is historical-interpretive and it deals with the investigation, exploration and comparison of the volumetric combination of the buildings, types of decorations and tile works’ images and paintings in the mortuary buildings of Seleucid Era’s Rome and the Seleucid Era’s Iranian edifices so as to reveal the effect of culture and cultural exchange in architecture. The present study’s findings underline the issue that the art and architecture of Seleucid Era’s Rome have been influenced by Damascus Art before the presence of the Iranians; however, it was with the arrival of the Iranian artists that parts of the architecture were constructed by Iranian images and decorations. The interaction between Iranians and rulers of Seleucid Era’s Rome and the auspicious conditions provided by them caused the Iranians to promote culture, rites and traditions and distinct signs of science, art and knowledge that were prevalent in the then Iran upon their entry into Rome.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Promoting the Sense of Place Attachment through Enplaning the Meaning of Place in the Open Space of Aseman-e-Tabriz Residential Complex

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Eskandari 1
  • Lida Balilan Asl 2
  • Dariush Sattarzadeh 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Architecture, Department of Art and Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Architecture, Department of Art and Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
3 Associate Professor of Architecture, Department of Art and Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The meaning of place and, consequently, the quality of relationship between people and places has become significant due to the current ever rising identity crises and the breakdown of meaning as a result of various phenomena such as globalization. Since the open space has lost its value and since the open space design is not considered in residential complexes, the close relationship between residents and the environment has been degraded and the sense of place attachment is forgotten in design. Therefore, this research seeks to define the effective components of place meaning, place attachment and the quality of residents and open space interaction in residential complexes. In this regard, the main question is how the components of physical environment (objective) and psychological environment (subjective) relate and counterbalance; and also, which component of place attachment has the most effect factor on open space design in residential complexes. To achieve the abovementioned goal, this research is configured in three phases: explaining, scrutinizing and evaluating the findings. This paper is an applied research conducted through analytical-descriptive methodology. The data were collected in two ways: documentary-library and field-survey; and were processed through questionnaires, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, using SPSS software and linear regression. Eventually, the data were evaluated and analyzed regarding the impact rate of each component of the triple indicators of place attachment in the residential complexes in three general categories: meaning, emotional and functional aspects. The data were used in six components of open space, including the pedestrian access, driveway access, playing space, green space, urban furniture and sitting space. The results show that place attachment components have the highest impact on green space and the playing space, pedestrian access, furniture, driveway access and then the sitting space are the most effective factors respectively; it can be mentioned that place attachment indicators interrelate directly.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Meaning
  • Open Space
  • Place Attachment
  • Aseman-e-Tabriz Residential Complex
Ainsworth, M.D.S., & Bell, S.M. (1970). Attachment, Exploration and Separation: Illustrated by the Behavior of One – Year – Olds in a Strange Situation. Child Development, 41, 49 – 67.
Altman, L., & Low, S. (1992). Place Attachment. New york: Plenum Press. 
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss. Attachment. New york: Basic Books, 1.
Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and Loss. Separation, New york: Basic Books, 2.
Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and Loss. Loss, sadness and depression. New york: Basic Books, 3.
Canter, D. (1997). Psychology of Place. the Architectural Press Ltd, London.
Chow, K., & Healey, M. (2008). Place Attachment and Place Identity: First- Year Undergraduates Making the Transition From Home to University. Journal of Environmental psychology, 28 (4), 362- 372. doi: 10. 1016/j. jenvp. 2008.02.011.
Christopher, M.R. (2010). The Measurement of Place Attachment: Personal, Community, and Environmental Connections. Journal of Environmental psychology, 30(4), 422-434.
Cuba, L., & Hummon, D.M. (1993). A Place to Call Home: Identification with Dwelling, Community, and Region. Sociological Quarterly, 34, 111- 131.
Dehkhoda, A. (1994). Dehkhoda Dictionary. Tehran: Tehran University Publications.
Devine - Wright, P., & Clayton, S. (2010). Introduction to the Special Issue: Place, Identity and Environmental Behaviour. Journal of Environmental psychology, 30 (3), 267 - 270. doi : 10.1016/S0272-4944(10)00078-2.
Eynifar, A.R. (2000). Human-Environment Factors of Design of Residential Complexes. Fine Arts, 8, 109-118.
Falahat, M. (2006). Sense of Place and the Factors Shaping It. Fine Arts Magazine, 26.
Fullilove, M.T. (1996). Psychiatric Implications of Displacement: Contribution from the Psychology of Place. American Journal of Psychology, 153, 1516-1523.
Germeraad, P.W. (1992). Islamic Traditions and Contemporary Open Space Design in Arab- Muslim Settlements in Middle EST. Landscape & Urban Planning, 20(2), 97-106.
Gerson, K., Stueve, C.A., & Fischer, C.S. (1977). Attachment to Place. Inc.S. Fischer, R.M. Jachson,C.A. Stueve, K. Gerson, L. Jones, M. Baldassare (Eds), Networks and Places, New York: The Free Press.
Ghazizadeh, S.N. (2011). Effect of Open Space of Residential Complex on Place Attachment Creation; Case Study: selected residential Complexes of Tehran.Pardis of Fine Arts, Architectural Faculty, Ph.D. Course, Detailed Abstract of Ph.D. Thesis of Archicture.
Gieryn, T.F. (2000). A Space for Place in Sociology. Sociol, 26, 463 – 96.
Giuliani, M.V. (2003). Theory of Attachment and Place Attachment. in M. Bonnes, T. Lee, & M. Bonaiuto (Eds.), Psychological Theories for Environmental Issues. 137-170. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Giuliani, M.V., & Feldman, R. (1993). Place Attachment in a Developmental and Cultural Context. Journal of Environmental Psychology, B, 267 – 274.
Gustafson, P. (2006). Place Attachment and N. Mcintyre, & K. E. Mchugh (Eds.). Multipledwelling and Tourism: Negotiating Place. Home and Identity, 17-31, CAB International.
Habibi, R.S. (2008). Subjective Images and Place Meaning. Journal of Fine Arts, 35, 39-50.
Hashas, M. (2003). Residents Attachment to New Urbanist versus Conventional Suburban Developments.Ph.D. Dissertation in Community and Environmental design, North Carolina State University.
Hashemnezhad, H., & Heidari, A.A. (2013). Sense of Place and Place Attachment. International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development, 3, 5-12.
Heidegger, M. (1971). Poetry Language Thought, Harper & Row. New york.
Hernandez, B. (2001). Place Attachment: Conceptual and Empirical Questions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 5 – 29.
Hildalgo, M. C., & Hernandez, B. (2001). Place Attachment: Conceptual and Empirical Questions.Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21, 273-281. doi: 10. 1006/jevp. 2001. 0221.
Hummon, D.M. (1992). Community Attachment: Local Sentiment and Sense of Place. Ini. Altman & S. Low (Eds), Place Attachment, New York: Plenum.
Hunter, A. (1978). Persistence of Local Sentiments in Man’s Society. In C. Street (Ed.), Handbook of Contemporary Urbon Life (133 – 162). Sanfrancisco: Jossey – Bass.
Jorgensen, B.S., & Stedman, R.C. (2001). Sense of Place as an Attitude: Lakeshore Owners Attitudes toward their Properties. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21(3), 233-248. dio: 10.1006/ jevp.2001.0226.
Kasarda, J.D., & Janowitz, M. (1974). Community Attachment in Mass Society. American Sociological Review, 39, 328 – 339.
Kyle, G., Graefe, A., Manning, R., & Bacon, J. (2004). Effects of Place Attachment on Users Perceptions of Social and Environmental Conditions in a Natural Setting. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24, 213 -225.
Lalli, M. (1992). Urban – Related Identity: Theory, Measurement and Empirical Findings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 12, 285-303.
Livingston, M., Bailey, N., & Kearns, A. (2008). Peoples Attachment to Place – the Influence of Neighborhood Deprivation. Glasgow: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Mahmudinejad, H., & Bemanian, M. (2008). Phenomenology of Place, to the Promotion of Space in the Urbon Area. Tehran: Municipalities and Organizations Publications.
Manzo, L.C. (2003). Beyond House and Haven: Toward a Revisioning of Emotional Relationships with Places. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 47-61.
Manzo, L.C. (2005). For Better or Worse: Exploring Multiple Dimensions of Place Meaning. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25, 67-86.
Marris, P. (1996). The Politics of Uncertainty: Attachment in Private and Public Life. New York, Routledge.
Mesh, G.S., & Manor, O. (1998). Social Ties, Environmental Perception, and Local Attachment. Environment and Behavior, 30, 227 – 245.
Mohammadzadeh, R. (2011). Study of Quality of Spatial and Physical Factors on Open Space of Residential Complexes, Located at Shahr-E-Jadid-E-Sahand, Architecture And Urbanism. Fine Arts, 3(47), 29-38.
Pakzad, J. (2007). The Feast of thoughts in Urbanism: From Space to Place. Tehran, Armanshahr Publications.
Patton, M.Q. (2001). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods, 3rd Edition, Sage, Newbury park, CA.
Pirbabaei, M.T., Gharabaglou, M., & Alinam, Z. (2015). Study of Place Attachment in Urban Studies, Psychological Approach, Quarterly News from Cognitive Sciences, 17(1), 47-59.
Pourjafar, M.R., Izadi, M.S., & Khabiri, S. (2013). Place Attachment; Concept Recognition, Principles and Criteria. Quarterly Identity of City, 9th year. 24, 44.
Proshanesky, H.M. (1978). The Cityand Self – Identity. Environment and Behavior, 10(2), 147-169. dio: 10.1177/0013916578102002.
Proshanesky, H.M., Fabian, A.K., & Kaminoff, R. (1983). Place – Identity: Physical World Socialization of the Self. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3(1), 57-83. dio: 10.1016/So272–4944(83)80021–8.
Raeesi, N., & Eshghi sanati, H. (2012). The Ratio of Space and Place Due to Architecture; Relying on the Thoughts of Martin Heidegger and Christine Norberg – Schulz. (Access on the Website 2013. Nov1). Retrieved from Magiran Website: ID = 2478696
Raymond, C.M., Brown, G., & Weber, D. (2010). The Measurement of Place Attachment: Personal, Community, and Environmental Connections. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 422-434.
Relph, E. (1976). Place and Placelessness. London: Pionnt.
Riley, R.B. (1992). Attachment to the Ordinary Landscape. In I. Altman, & S. M. Low (Eds.), Place Attachment (13- 35). New york: Plenum.
Saphian, M.J., Ansari, M., Ghafari. A., & Masoud, M. (2011). Phenomenological Study: Hermeneutics of Place Proportion or Art of Architecture. Journal of Philosophic Researches of Tabriz University, 8, 93-129.
Saiedlue, S., Hosseini, S.B., Yazdanfar, S.A., & Maleki, S.N. (2015). Enhancing Quality of Life and Improving Living Standards Through the Expansion of Open Space in Residential Complex Asian Conference on Environment- Behaviour Studies. ACE-BS 2015, 20-22 February, Tehran, Iran.
Sajjadzadeh, H. (2013). Role of Place Attachment in Identity Formation of Urban Squares, Case Study: Aramgah Square of Hamadan. Quarterly Bagh-e-Nazar, 10(25), 69-78.
Sarason, S. (1974). The Psychological Sense of Community: Propects for a Community Psychology. San Francisco: Jossey – Bass.
Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2010), Defining Place Attachment: A Tripartite Organizing Framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 1 – 10.
Schulz, C.N. (1984). The Concept of Dwelling. New York: Rizzoli.9.
Schulz, C.N. (2009). Soul of Place towards Architectural Phenomenology. (M.R. Shirazi, Trans.). Tehran: Rokhdad No Publications.
Simeoforidis, Y. (1993). On Landscape and Open Spaces, Arch & Behave, 3, 321-327.
Stedman, R.C. (2003). Is It Really a Social Construction? The Contribution of Physical Environment to Sense of Place, Society and Natural Resources, 16, 671 – 685.
Steel, F. (1981). The Sense of Place. Boston, Massachusetts: CBI Publishing Company, Inc.
Stokols, D., & Shumaker, S.A. (1981). People in Places: A Transactional View of Setting. In Harvey, J. H. (Ed).Cognition Social Behavior and The Environment. 441- 488. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.
Tabrizi, J. (2003). Effect of Urban Renewal on Creation of Placelessness: Case Study of Navvab-e-Tehran Project. Ph.D. Thesis: Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty Of Humanities, Tehran, Tarbiyat-e-Modarress University.
Tavassoli, M., & Bonyadi, N. (1990). Design of Urban Space (2). Urban Space and Its Situation in Life and Urban Landscape, Tehran: Center of Studies and Researches of Architecture and Urbanism.
Toghyani, S., & Shabani, A.H. (2015). Design of High Rise Residential Building with Approach of Traditional House Flexible Patterns. The 5th International Conference of Sustainable Development and Urban Construction, Esfahan, Iran.
Trentlman, C.K. (2009). Place Attachment and Community Attachment: A Primer Grounded in the Lived Experience of a Community Sociologist. Society & Natural Resources, 22(3), 191- 210. doi: 10. 1080/08941920802191712
Tuan, Y.F. (1977). Space and Place the Perspective of Experience. London: Edward Arnold (publishres) Ltd.
Turner, T. (1992). Open Space Planning in London: From Standards Per 1000 to Green Strategy. Town Planning.
Twigger-Ross, C.L., & Uzzell, D.L. (1996). Place and Identity Processes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 16(3), 205-220.
Ujang, N., & Zakariya, Kh. (2015). Place Attachment and the Value of Place in the Life of the Users, Berlin, Aice – Bs 2014 Magdeburg. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 168 (2015) 373- 380.
Unger, D.G., & Wandersman, A. (1985). The Importance of Neighbors: The Social, Cognitive and Affective Components of Neighboring. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 139 – 169.
Waxman, L.K. (2004). More than Coffee an Examination of People, Place, and Community with Implications for Design. Ph.D. Thesis, Florida state University.
Weidemann, S. & Anderson, J.R. (1985). A Conceptual Framework for Residential Satisfaction. In I. Altman & C.H.Werner (Eds), Home Environments, New York: Plenum Press.
Williams, D.R., & Vaske, J.J. (2003). The Measurement of Place Attachment Validity and Generalizability of a psychometric Approach, Forest Science, 49(6), 830-846.
Woldoff, R.A. (2002). The Effects of Local Stressors on Neighborhood Attachment. Social Forces, 81, 87-116.
Zakavat, K., & Dehgan, Y.S. (2016). Model of Place Creation Management and Quality Builder Components in Public Sphere. Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Planning Journal, 17, 219.