نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 کارشناسی ارشد مرمت بناها و بافتهای تاریخی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد یزد، یزد، ایران
2 دکتری مرمت بناها و بافتهای تاریخی، دانشکده معماری و هنر، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Zoroastrianism is based on preventing from polluting four sacred elements, water, earth, air, and fire; hence, they abandon corpses in an open space and away from polluting quadruple elements to be fed by the birds. The primary Dakhmas were built simply on top of a mountain. Although Indian and Iranian Zoroastrians have similar rituals and ceremonies in the tradition of Dakhma construction, eventually, there were differences in their construction method, the reason for which dates back to the early Islamic era. When the Islamic government took over, some Zoroastrians of Iran (Parsis of India) migrated to India and imported the tradition of Dakhma making into India and pursued it there. However, due to the social and governmental restrictions, Dakhma construction and its rituals were gradually changed among the Zoroastrians of Iran, while Parsis of India have fully performed the rituals and preserved them until now. This tradition, however, has been stopped for more than 50 years in Iran. The current research aimed to study and identify the construction methods of Zoroastrian Dakhmas and compare them in Iran and India. To this end, some questions were raised that how is the architecture and construction method of Dakhmas in India and Iran, and what are the differences between them? Is the construction method of the Dakhma merely to satisfy a ritual need and religious belief, or have practical and functional factors also been effective in the construction method? Is it based on satisfying a ritual need, or have social and religious issues and beliefs also been influential in their construction method? The research method was descriptive-comparative and field study, and in some cases, the Mobads (Zoroastrian clerics) and Zoroastrians were also interviewed. According to the observational findings based on the documents, research, and statements of valid religious leaders where field study was not available, Dakhmas were constructed based on the religious and rituals beliefs of Zoroastrians and functional needs. However, the construction method and ceremonies of Dakhma in Iran have been held briefly than in India.