عنوان مقاله [English]
Urban public spaces quality is one of the most important concentrations in recent urban
design research. Trying to achieve urban public spaces that atones citizens is one of main
strategies of urban design projects. Because of visual relationship, it seems that visual
quality is one of the first stages of urban spaces pleasure. In urban design fundamentals this
subject argued in visual aesthetics of urban public spaces and basic concepts like
proportion, contrast, harmony and etc is considering. Among these concepts contrast has an
ambiguity that usage way of it has different results. We can say there is common border
between last degrees of contrast and first degrees of opposition. Notwithstanding negative
look of opposition when we consider it in urban design way of using can be negative or
positive. Review of great urban public spaces shows that there is degrees of opposition and
contrast. Urban design history in Iran has rich treasure of intelligent use of contrast. We can
see this intelligent use of contrast in all city and urban spaces like streets, plazas and etc.
Yazd and Isfahan in center of Iran are the famous cities for using contrast. Complexity has
been one of main concept in architecture and urban design of 20 century and one of main
critical subject between modernism and post modernism. Robert Venturi is famous person
for this subject. His famous book, complexity and contradiction is one of main references
for using contrast in architecture.
According to monotony in urban public spaces aspect of Iranian cities, it seems that we can
use potential of contrast for creating more visual diversity. Visual diversity can effect on
urban vitality. Baharestan square is one of the best cases that have potential of contrast and
opposition, but this subject has not been analyzed in formal aesthetic of square. Not pay
attention to this potential leads to lack of visual integration and visual perception.
In this article with description method and data collection with observation method, first we
define contrast, opposition and their degrees; second we try to analyze relation between
contrast and pleasure of urban public space in Baharestan square. It seems that using
contrast can enhance quality of Baharestan square and this contrast can effect on urban
identity of this square.
All considerations about contrast recognition in Baharestan square shows that different
design experiences of different historical period in main elements of main structure like
National Assembly, Sepahsalar Mosque and Islamic Assembly creates positive contrast.
They have built in different time from Ghajar period to now. Baharestan square is a scene
for showing this beautiful companion and narrative of this visual diversity picture. Pay
attention to this potential is one of main steps to enhance visual diversity of square. This
subject relates to wall height. This potential of contrast can deliver into square and in
organization project of Baharestan square we can use contrast in floor, walls and urban
furniture in accompany with effective contrast of formal elements to achieve special
identity of Baharestan square. Baharestan square with this identity introduce one of good
pattern for other urban public spaces.