نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دکترای معماری از دانشگاه گلاسکو انگلستان، دانشیار وزارت علوم تحقیقات و فناوری، تهران، ایران.
2 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Contemporary modern urban architecture of Iran suffers from the lack of its native and cultural identity and sustainability during its process of modernization. The Modern urban architecture of Gilan seems to have the same problem as Iran's contemporary architecture. Underway of modernization, Modern architecture of Gilan has not been so successful to depict a sustainable type of its background and context. Because neither it has approached to the ideals of modern architecture nor preserved its original and cultural identity and contextual features. Trying to understand the high degree of correspondence of modern architecture attributes and features with the vernacular residential architecture of Gilan, will help designers and architects have a better attitude in modern architectural urban design in Gilan. So this article demonstrates that vernacular residential architecture of Gilan and modern period architecture have many similar attributes in form, despite their different histories, cultures and social backgrounds. This article expresses that some similar circumstances in both social backgrounds had some similarities in common, like women’s role in the economy and career style. Understanding this similitude is a necessity in the process of modern urban architectural design to have an identity and sustainability.
To approach its goal, this article is based on the comparative analysis method. In different sections of this article, similar features of forms and their origins would be identified for each architecture type. Four main sections of the article are as below:
First part explains the factors affecting vernacular architecture of Gilan consist of climatic, cultural and career circumstances, which have led Gilan vernacular architecture to an extroverted architecture type. Temperate climate and heavy rains have caused some kind of extroverted architecture type with tendency to natural materials, simplicity, transparency and etc. Buildings are open to natural air circulation and are made upper than the ground surface to avoid moisture of soil. These are due to climate consequences.
Buildings’ forms have a strong relation with their environment (farms, gardens, etc). They have terraces around rooms, open to the yard and most part of the life is being placed on terraces. So extroversion is the most attribute of vernacular architecture in Gilan which leads other features. The style of Gilanian occupants’ career, which was co-operating and collaborating of all family members, including men and women together, has also led the architecture to extroversion in form and environmental arrangement. Because working with neighbors and communicating with them around houses were regular and influenced by their way of living. After knowing Gilan’s climate and culture, the article depicts this type of architecture’s features and attributes and their origins in 13 items, including lightness, functionalism, symbolism, modular plan design, transparency, relation to nature and etc. These are mostly effects of extroversion and relation to nature.
Second Part is about Modern architecture period and knowing its features and origins.
At first, the article defines some important vocabulary of modernism issue like modern, modernism, modernization and modernity. These are necessary to understand thoughts and ideals of modern architecture. Then the most distinctive features and attributes of modern period architecture are distinguished by analyzing modern period thoughts and famous buildings and monuments. Minimalism, extroversion, naturalism, transparency, functionalism, sculpturally, lightness, brutality and etc. are the most specified attributes of western modern period. They are mostly effects of humanism, rationalism and also functionalism.
Third part of the article analyzes all mentioned attributes and features of both architecture types in a comparative method and demonstrates the similar ones. It shows 11 out of 14 mentioned attributes and features that are similar to each other and have correspondence, which shows a high degree of 80 percent similarity. In fact, just three features had been non relative and that were free plan design in modern architecture versus modular plan design in Gilan vernacular architecture and also symbolism in Gilan vernacular buildings.
The first was the effect of modern structure and technology in comparison with restricted one in Gilan historical buildings and the last one reflected Gilanians’ creed.
The last part of this study indicates the very high similitude in features and attributes of these two types of architecture despite their difference in cultural and historical contexts and backgrounds. From this correspondence in features of these two types, the article concludes that modern urban architectural design in Gilan can use this similar attributes to have such a sustainable modern architecture with relation to its past and origins. The most similar features specified by this article are: Transparency, Functionalism, Minimalism, Extroversion, Naturalism, Sculpturally, Lightness, Brutality, Decreasing Decorations, Bolding Architectural Elements and Truth in Its Appearance.