نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشیار روانشناسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران
2 دانشیار روانشناسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران.
3 کارشناسی ارشد روانشناسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Environmental psychology is a field of study that examines the interrelationship between environments and human affect, cognition and behavior (Gifford 2007; Stokols & Altman, 1987).
Today, social adjustment and mental health as the most important sign that many specialists preoccupied the minds in different Experts, has been attracted psychologists and researchers’ attention in last decades. Interaction and connection between the environment and human lead to emotional relationships between men and the environment (Low & Altman, 1992, p. 12). The use of terms such as neighbors or citizens in many culture expresses attachment to the environment.
Permanent interaction with the environment will affect abilities, our being as a person and our mental health. Many Studies show that stronger environmental attachment relates with satisfaction of the location, positive affect and better adjustment (van den Berg et al., 2003, p.135), that this specification will increase social adjustment by increasing peoples’ Mental health.
Therefore, we expect environmental attachment in students will be associated with social adjustment and mental health. This study investigated that attachment to the environment related to mental health and social adjustment in students.
Materials and Methods
Present study is a descriptive correlation study which investigates probable relations between environment attachments with mental health and social adjustment in first grade high school Students. Statistical population of this study is all male and female high school students of Varamin City in 2012-13 academic years. Samples include 340 students (170 boys and 170 girls) who selected by random sampling method.
1) Socio-demographic Data
Information was obtained using a standardized questionnaire, for the following sociodemographic variables: sex, age, place of birth, educational level, occupational status, living arrangements, monthly family and per capita income.
2) General Health Questionnaire
General Health Questionnaire is a method to quantify the risk of developing psychiatric
disorders. GHQ-28 (28-items), however the scale is often used as measure of psychological wellbeing .This measure incorporates four subscales: somatic symptoms, anxiety, insomnia,
social dysfunctional and severe depression.
3) Social Adjustment
The California Psychological Inventory assesses social communication and interpersonal behavior. The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) is a leading non-clinical personality inventory test that evaluates interpersonal behavior and social interaction of normal individuals.
The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) is a self-report inventory and is made up of 80 true-false questions which can be grouped into two classes: 1) Social Adjustment 2) Personal Adjustment. The test is typically used with people aged 13 years and older. The inventory contains 80 items.
4) Environmental Attachment Measures
We measured environmental attachment using 9scale items developed and validated by Midalgo and colleagues (Williams et al., 1992; Williams & Roggenbuck, 1989; Williams & Vaske, 2003). Environmental attachment was measured contained a set of questions repeated four times, ones for each of for area. This measure has shown good internal consistency. Items were presented in on a four -point Likert- type.
Data obtained by searching records in 340 students who were randomly selected to be included in the study. Table 1 summarizes Correlations between the environment attachment with mental health and Social adjustment
Table 1. Correlations of All Tested Variable
The results show that there is a significant relation between some of dimensions environmental attachment with mental health subscale such as anxiety, sleep disorders, depression and social functions. It seems People who have no attachment to the environment, will not comfort in that environment, and they will be suffering from anxiety and depression environmental attachment establishes better relationships with neighborhood and this creates more social adjustment. This research suggests that environmental designers have to design environments that increase the emotional interaction with their environment. These conditions can increase social adjustment and mental health in students.The findings suggest that environmental attachment play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly positive mental health.