نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استاد معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.
2 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، موسسه آموزش عالی خاوران، مشهد، ایران
3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد معماری اسلامی، دانشکده هنر و معماری اسلامی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام رضا (ع)، مشهد، ایران.
4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد معماری اسلامی، دانشکده هنر و معماری اسلامی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام رضا (ع)، مشهد، ایران..
عنوان مقاله [English]
Over the past few decades and aligned with the beginning of energy crisis in the world, many efforts were made in order to reduce energy consumption in the construction sector and this droved humanity to use natural energies. Since there are limited source of energy in the world, many countries are aiming to achieve sustainable developments. In our country, there are various climate zones and weather conditions during different seasons. In this regard, traditional architecture has created rational solutions based on the type of building, the activity carried out in it, and the climate of the area, to provide comfortable conditions for humans. By investigating past architectures, we can see that providing thermal comfort for humans was carried out with utilizing maximum natural energy. Defining human comfort range precisely in each climate zone is one of the best ways for designing natural factor-based buildings. It can be assumed that using native and traditional methods is one of the best solutions that can be used to solve the problems created by modern buildings. Iranian traditional architecture is one aspect of sustainable architecture, which was responsive to environmental factors and energy efficiency, both in terms of low initial cost and current and functional price of the building. Despite all technological difficulties, the traditional architect has general understanding of his surrounding climatic concepts and chooses the right proportion and orientation in order to move toward a sustainable architecture. Light plays a significant role in architecture; hence, architects and designers use light extensively in various fields to create unique spaces. In this paper, the authors aimed to study the characteristics of considering climate in term of energy issues in Kashan and in functions such as houses that have the most usage among architectural functions. The methods of research in this study are both qualitative and quantitative, and in sample recognition phase, the qualitative research method was used. First, the basic knowledge was completed by collecting information from library resources and field observations. And then a quantitative research method was used to analyze and evaluate the data obtained from recognition phase. Therefore, in this study, one of five-door-room in the Boroujerdi homes was selectively modeled in Google sketchup 3D software and then analyzed by Ecotect’s software, with the aim of investigating the effects of shadow depths on space quality, recognition of native pattern and building architecture, and the amount of light and the energy received by different spaces. To enhance the accuracy of the studies, analyzes were carried out on two days, one in summer and another in winter, which had the greatest difference regarding the state of the sun, and to assure the accuracy of measurements carried out for sun lifetime and daylight, the investigations were carried out in three different hours per each day (9 Am, 12 Pm, 15 Pm). Light is one of the main types of renewable energy, and from long ago its usage was one of the primary concerns of humans. By proper analysis and with the use of architectural discipline solutions, residential buildings with efficient principles, less costly models, and more comfort can be achieved. At the Boroujerdi House, the traditional architect considered particular climate issues and successfully was able to provide thermal comfort and optimal lighting of the five-door-space, which is largely consistent with the foundations of sustainable architecture. The five-door-room in the Boroujerdi House can be considered a favorable and optimal space in terms of lighting and energy reception level, and its architect can be considered a successful and acceptable example in terms of climate situation. Using sunlight to provide the necessary lighting for the whole day and providing the required energy maximally in the cold days have resulted in the definition and responsiveness of space toward the needs in two levels, so that the required light would not be less than a minimum amount, and on the other hand, a part of the building which is defined for specific usage and is dependent on the needs of its user, will respond to other needs which is providing and supplying energy in cold season. It seems that in Iranian houses, the proportions and symmetry of eaves have an important role on receiving the solar energy and providing thermal comfort. This has significant importance for studying and for importing it in modern designs. The design of the Boroujerdi House contributes to the continuity of senses and the quality of space, increases the life span of space, and the user can spend more time in this space with a reasonable amount of light change.