نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.
2 استاد شهرسازی، دانشکده شهرسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Urban growth topic and their patterns with the growth management policies, as important topics, affect various urban and regional plans. Based upon this matter, the main purpose of this study is a typology identification of growth management policies in urban base regions. For this aim, two sections are set: first, the important and highly cited studies on urban growth pattern are surveyed, then main urban growth pattern in three vast concepts including urban growth, urban expansion, urban sprawl are presented. In the second section and after identification of twelve growth patterns, the typology of growth management policies is presented. After growth management typology discussion, the linkage explanation between growth patterns and growth management policies is done. The research method in this paper is meta-analysis method. Research findings show that the most important polices in growth management include twelve parts. These polices in some studies is known as growth management geopolitics and employed in various cities in the world both inside and outside the city limits. Growth management policies include the following: Green Belt (GB), Urban Growth Boundary (UGB), Urban Services Areas (USA), Extra-Territorial Jurisdiction (ETJ),
Mandatory Comprehensive Plans, Concurrency Provisions and Development Impact Fees, Inter local and Joint-Planning Agreements and Inter Local Agreements (ILA), Transfer/Purchase of Development Rights (TDR), Density Bonuses and Inclusionary Housing Provisions, Special Tax/Financing Tools, Green-Building Programs and Mass-Transit and TOD. Growth management techniques, in general, include: (1) housing/population caps, commercial/industrial caps, and temporary moratoria, (2) urban growth boundaries (UGBs), urban service boundaries (USAs), urban limit lines, and the green belt, (3) concurrency, adequate public facilities (APF), and development impact fees, (4) zoning and other land use regulations such as planned unit developments (PUDs), the purchase of development rights (PDRs), and the transfer of development rights (TDRs), (5) financial or tax incentives for infill and redevelopment, (6) conservation easement and the direct purchase of land for conservation, (7) environmental regulations, and (8) tax-base revenue sharing. The applications and implementation of these techniques are diverse in terms of their strengths and flexibility at the local, community, regional, and state levels. Regarding to these growth management techniques, many studies referred to the techniques of growth boundary (e.g., UGBs, USAs, urban limit lines, and the green belt) as “urban containment” policies. Despite a significant amount of documentation and research on the growth management systems and their implementation, the impact of growth management systems on revitalization in urbanized areas has not been comprehensively addressed in academic literature because the length of time after implementing growth management policies can be a critical factor in the analysis of their effects. However, Dawkins and Nelson (2003) assessed the impact of statewide growth management systems on central-city revitalization by analyzing the panel data of construction activities for 293 metropolitan areas. Their analyses indicated that statewide growth management programs have observable effects on residential construction activities in the central cities. Growth management policies such as an Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) can help encourage infill development in the inner-ring suburbs. However, urban containment policies at the regional level may revitalize the downtowns and the outer-ring suburbs within the growth boundaries at the expense of the inner-ring suburbs. Although urban containment shifted development from rural and exurban areas to city and suburban areas, this shift may concentrate in the downtowns and the outer-ring suburbs of the spatially differentiated metropolitan region. Growth management programs can be framed to address these problems [the vicious cycle of poverty concentration, social despair, and fiscal distress that plagues much of urban America] in fundamental ways, they can redirect economic and social forces by balancing the spread of new development with several efforts to stabilize or revive existing neighborhoods, business centers, and industrial areas and by modifying tax and infrastructure investment policies that influence location decisions. Urban growth management policies, targeting increased development density and protection of open spaces, are widely required in various parts of the world to alleviate negative effects of urban development. Negative impacts of disordered urban growth range from excessive land reclamation and energy consumption, to traffic congestion and air pollution. Urban containment policies including urban growth boundaries (UGBs), urban service boundaries (USBs), and greenbelts are intended to contain the specified types of future urban development (e.g. high-rise residential buildings), within pre-defined boundaries to curb urban sprawl and encourage infill development. Finally Growth management looks for maintaining an ongoing equilibrium between development and conservation, between various form of development and the concurrent provision of infrastructure, between the demands for public services generated by growth and the supply of revenues to finance those demands, and between progress and equity.