نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 پژوهشگر دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.
2 استاد شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.
3 استادیار هنر و معماری، بنیاد دانشنامه نگاری ایران، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Siraf historical port was Iran’s the most important trading port in the late Sassanid era to the late fourth hegira century. This port founded in Sassanid era in order to develop the trade and security in Persian Gulf. It is located on the north coast of the Persian Gulf in province of Bushehr. Its ruins are approximately 220km east of Bushehr, 30km east from Kangan city, and 380km west of Bandar Abbas. It proves the Iranians’ mastership and genius in seafaring, international relations and interaction with other near and far cultures and civilizations. The special geographical location in the Persian Gulf and close access to the most prosperous cities in the southern of Iran like Shiraz and Firoozabad provided the possibility to a commodity exchange for merchants and seafarers. We can definitely say that Siraf in the early centuries of Islam was certificate sailing on Iran and arts and culture of Iran were exported to other parts of the world. Accordingly, two methods have been applied for this research, Descriptive – analytical method based on data library and the other one is content analysis, based on archaeological documents and reports. In this regard by presentation maps of the physical-functional structure of Siraf in the fourth century based on analysis of historical books, related travelogues, archaeological documents and presentation the position of regional sphere of Siraf on that period it is concluded that Siraf had an introverted architecture. It seems that, in addition of similar feathers of the structural concepts of Siraf port with the Iranian traditional city on market orientation and its elements and functions, physical-functional structure of Siraf could be summarized to a twin axis of contrasts. Based on historical texts, the physical-functional structure of the city of Siraf makes it clear that the city is alive and the social interactions happening in the markets and ports. There are numerous mosques with the semi-private function in the city. But, on the basis of the analysis of the studies of archeology, we see the introverted architecture and introverted urban planning and design in this city. The public spaces of the city have lack open views; there is no urban squares area. Public spaces are without any signs of rich architecture, and the system of alleys seems to have grown organically, while inner spaces, such as central courtyards, houses and mosque courtyards, are versatile and arranged. In fact, the urban elements are in a certain system in city but their meaning is more inward and it means an introverted urban planning. Also, the development of Siraf on the coastline, it is based on the shape and topography of the coast and in the city’s coastline we have a direct view but without a particular look at the sea except the area of the grand mosque which is due to the direction of Qiblah, the formation of the building is skewed to the coastline. Considering that the structure of coastal cities is different from the other cities, the result of this study on physical-functional structure of siraf gives us a new point of view about the spatial structure of the Iranian historical cities. Also this result is important for imagine the shape and the form of an Iranian coastal city in the fourth Hegira century. From the regional point of view, Siraf was unquestionably the most important Persian ports of trade. With deep water access, a good anchorage and protected from the prevailing storms of the Persian Gulf. Also because of Siraf location along Silk waterway, and to be destination of commercial terrestrial channels and the existence of ground and paving roads to Shiraz and other regions of Iran, the importance of regional sphere of Siraf was increased. In addition in the fourth century Siraf had a lucky business with East Africa, India and China and the accumulation of huge funds in Siraf contributing to the growth of urbanization and the construction of private high rise buildings, schools, mosques. Also, in this period the migration of scholars from other parts of the world to this port happened. According to the archeological studies, marine trade between the Persian Gulf and Far East lands began to flourish at this port because of the vast expansion of trade in consumer goods and luxury items at the time. It proves the Iranians’ mastership and genius in seafaring, international relations and interaction with other near and far cultures and civilizations. We can definitely say that the Siraf as a commercial port had the role of exporting Iranian-Islamic arts and culture to Southeast Asia, East Africa and the Far East.