عنوان مقاله [English]
The present study uses a descriptive-analytic research method and studied the architectural features of two periods: Ilkhani and Safavid, by studying the maps, architectural drawings and documents related to the mosques of the two periods, and their analysis and comparison. In the library studies section, various historic printed documents have been used to collect information about the architecture of Safavid and Ilkhani mosques. This article focuses on the physical features of the architectural characteristics among the eleven examples of the Ilkhani mosques compared to the same number of mosques in Safavid period. It is obvious that addressing all aspects of the architecture features of their works and comprehensive analysis is beyond the scope of an article. Therefore, this research compares these mosques from the perspective of number of elements and plan elements, their location in the plan and also the shape and geometry used for these components of the architectural plans. Analyzes and comparisons show that the spaces of the Safavid mosques are wider than the mosques in the Ilkhani period and also a similar functional model has been used in both Safavid and Ilkhani periods. There is more diversity in geometry design of the mosques of Ilkhani to Safavid mosques. In other words, during Safavid period, the diversity of geometry is decreasing with an increase in mosque spaces. Also, during the period of Ilkhani, the emphasis has been given to the vertical axis (height) and we will see that during the Safavid period, the dome was given more importance, while it was more important in the northeastern ilkhani period. During the period of Islam, the emphasis has been given to vertical axis (height). But in Ilkhani period the emphasis is given to Shabistan spaces.
In this research in order to select a the case study of mosques, the ages of Ilkhani and Safavid were first studied and their kings in selected periods were analyzed according to their governing years and their building activities. Then the eleven case studies were chosen on the basis of the dispersion of construction, built time and building importance. The mosques of the Safavid period have been chosen from the city of Isfahan, but the mosques of the Ilkhani period were not restricted to a particular city due to their diversity and dispersion. In the next step, the information needed to analyze the plan, facades, sections and the three-dimensional perspective was obtained from the existing maps of the Ganjnameh books and documents of Iran cultural heritage organization. Then, the analysis and comparison of selected mosques applied on the basis of perspectives of the diversity of spaces, location of the spaces in the plan, shape of the spaces and their buildings dimension. After identifying the case studies, the architecture characteristics of Safavid studied, Safavid period has led to many ups and downs that have been based on the king’s interest in art and architecture, as well as the king’s merit in governance. King Ishmael first began the Safavid kingdom in 907 AD (1492 AD) in Tabriz. Because of his interest in art and culture, the greatest artists of the time came to his court and by his order architects commissioned to build new buildings across his kingdom.
For Ilkhani architectural characteristics, this could be said that Ilkhani architecture did not initiate in Iran until Holaku kingdom in Maraqeh city. Before Holaku Iran was under attack of Mongolian invasion. After he started building construction in country, the maps of the pillars and types of buildings maintained their traditional and Seljuk style, but the proud and ambitious of Mongolian kings were about to reach beyond what was already present in Iran. As a result, the attention of Ilkhanis was inspired by their renowned Iranian ministers, on cities such as Tabriz, Soltanieh, and Isfahan. In these periods not only some past architectural monuments were resorted and conserved but also some precious architectural workswere started and completed such as the altar of the Isfahan mosque which founded by the Iranian Minister, Al-Ja’i Tito, Mohammad Sawi. In this period, Tabriz and Soltaniyah were the political, social and cultural centers of Iran. In the result, distinctions of architectural characteristics of Ilkhani and Safavid mosques could be categorized in five divisions: The wider and vastness spaces of the Safavid mosques to Ilkhani mosques, applying a similar functional template in both Safavid and Ilkhani periods, emphasizing on the vertical axis in architectural monuments in Ilkhani period relative to the Safavid period, importance of indoor places such as Shabistans in Ilkhani architecture and the importance of dome and dome-house places in Safavid architecture.