نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 مربی معماری و شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، شعبه استان همدان، دانشگاه علم و فرهنگ، همدان. ایران
2 استادیار معماری منظر، دانشکده معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
3 دانشیار شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه بینالمللی امام خمینی (ره)، قزوین، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Since the emerging of strategic planning and management in the 50’s, this approach has continuously experienced changes during the following years and decades, the result of which being a series of different methods and models of evaluation and decision making in management and planning arenas. It was in the 50’s and 60’s that the strategic management evolution in dependence on financial programming was realized, thereby, for the first time, the balanced scorecard model being considered in international communities by Kaplan and Norton. The essence of the balanced scorecard as a measuring scale for proceeding towards the perspective is specified in advance. It could be claimed that the evaluation of urban plans and programs in terms of implementation is counted as the newest approach in providing and codifying urban development plans and programs. The increasing implementation of micro and goals in urban plans and programs requires a determining and analytic model, so that referencing the given model beyond the presentation of scenario and perspective, exploiting the considered large-scale goals (perspectives), and referencing the network structure, at the end, the final score in each of the performance indicators could be seen, and undoubtedly each perspective of higher score will show more implementation compared with other goals, and it is demonstrative of a high implementation score for the urban plan and program in the area of that perspective in the specified year. It needs to mention that the given model, for first time was provided from organizational strategic planning and management into urban planning and specifically urban plans and programs, and after conceptual alteration in the structure, the model as a conceptual-analytical structure attempts to investigate the implementation rate of urban plans and programs propositions in the vision year, and on the whole urban programs. Research methodology is defined with regard to a set of operations for the stablishment of a system of scientific investigation rules and principals (Rahimi, 1999).
The city development strategies (CDS) became common after comprehensive and detailed urban planning patterns and following the establishment of the Cities Alliance, in order to achieve sustainable urban development, poverty reduction and human excellence. The city development strategies are the process of preparing a long-term vision of future city development which based on that, short-term executive programs are prepared. An evaluation and monitoring system has been proposed to ensure the implementation of the strategic development plans. The most important role of evaluation in urban development planning, in different areas, is the ability to establish a relationship between the degree of realization of the proposed options and small and minor effects during the program. Therefore, evaluating the impact of proposed options in urban development programs is a major challenge. The Cities alliance together with the help of the World Bank and the United Nations Human Settlements Center, in line with its main mission, which is reaching a sustainable urban development,provides a set of criteria (proposition) and indicators (options) for access to sustainable urban development in urban strategic development programs. All these criteria and indicators help to gain access to a quantitative evaluation model consisting of criteria, indicators, and measures. In this research, by using the Balanced Scorecard Model (BSC) based on the criteria and indicators mentioned above, the authors have quantitatively evaluated the degree of realization of each of the of the sustainable urban development indicators in the target system (city) with emphasis on the Analytic Network Process (ANP). The most important approach in this research is to establish communication from the perspective of the realization of all predicted and objective options, with emphasis on financial and non-financial resources, which provides access to an efficient and ideal output.
The methodology of the present study, taking account of the goals of the study, could be assumed in the category of functional studies. The goal of such kind of research is to grow and promote a product or an activity procedure, and in a word, to examine theoretical concepts (mental concepts) in real situations. That is, the growth and the promotion of a product, a process, or an activity, and briefly the referencing of concepts in the real environment.