نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه صنعتی جندی شاپور دزفول، دزفول، ایران.
2 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه صنعتی جندی شاپور دزفول، دزفول، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The use of numbers in the past architecture has a special place, so that it is used in most holy buildings. The culture is full of the wonders that it expresses in nation’s architecture, in a harmonious way. The numbers of the figures, whether statically and aesthetically, are clearly evident in historical places. In a way that is quite obvious, the numbers are not sometimes visible; they use as Symbols and help architects in terms of building stability. In the meantime, number four was one of the most stable numbers in the stationary direction of the buildings. Regarding to the people’s beliefs, they used it as a holy number especially in religious places. The number four in ancient times has been asymbolic number. For example, it is believed that there are four rivers in heaven that have the shape of a cross, or there are four parts of the earth, and the like. The fourth of the four distances, even centuries ahead of history, is to show what is solid, tangible and tangible. Has been used and is, in fact, a heavenly figure. It has also been used extensively in religious architecture. The designs drawn from Paradise are square- (rectangular) shaped and have four doors. In this paper, we try to investigate the role of this number in the architecture of Atashkade by examining the historical significance of “Four” aesthetics and static. To do this, using a descriptive-analytical method, the method of reviewing library texts and field methodology has been used to evaluate the formation of fire cells based on the number four. For this purpose, the features in the general layout of the remained Atashkades in Iran have been analyzed in terms of the application of the Four. Finally, seven sacred and important Atashkades have been investigated in terms of physical characteristics. The spatial structure of Atashkade and places that the ancient Iranians created in their ancient times were organized and arranged regarding to their forms and symbols. The space that was built by man or the architectural space of Atashkade in all cases made a turning point, the centrality of fire that lay between the heaven and earth. Also, with a square plan, this feature was inspired by the viewer, from the landmark to the dome Elderly is in evolution. The four-pillars were kept with four pillars, which protected the deep thoughts and, with a beautiful statement, referred to the angels holding the earth and the keepers of the main directions. We also see the rectangularity of the roof and the dome-shaped roofs of the fireworks with four pillars as well as the main turning point of the architectural space of the fire. The findings show that the architectural design of Atashkade in terms of planar characteristics and their formation is fully in line with the principle of applying the number four, so that we explore in all of these buildings, the existence of four pillars in the planar planks, as well as the placement of four openings in four directions. Also, the height of the building and the vertical axis, the observance of the four levels in the representation and the total volume are considered as the index of the figure and the role of this number in the harmonization of the overall structure of these buildings is quite evident. In all Atashkades, having a quadrilateral plan was essential. We do not see opposition in any of the fireworks. Various spaces, such as the dome, the holy fire, the Ganjkhane, and other spaces, are all shaped by a four-pillar plan. In the vertical direction, they also show the four appearances. In the beginning, we have a wide range of land as a Atashkade site. Then the columns and the main body of the fire temple after that place the roof and then a dome-shaped roof, which is a symbol of the sky. In this way, the thoughtful form of the sanctity of number four has also been shown in vertical direction. The placing of the dome and roof on the four columns in the Atashkade is a symbol of the four preserving elements of the earth. Also, in the Atashkades used in the decorations, the number four has been used so that the base of Atashkades located in the center of it, is in the form of four-ears, and in their view are also four stages as elements a Atashkades are classified.